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Probithia exclusa Walker,  
Hemerophila? exclusa Walker, 1860, List Specimens lepid. Insects Colln Br. Mus. 21: 320.
Hemerophila praetereuns Walker, 1860, Ibid. 21: 320.
Bithia lignaria Walker, 1862, Ibid. 25: 1600.
Psamatodes frenata Felder & Rogenhofer, 1875, Reise öst. Fregatte Novara, P1. 129.

Probithia exclusa

This species (ssp lignaria) is generally paler than the next, less irrorated and banded with greyish brown, but with a strong dark brown irregular band distal to the postmedial over the dorsal half of the hindwings. The hindwing medial is also more clearly defined, as are the dark brown markings at the forewing costa, with the postmedial chevron entire rather than consisting of two dashes at an angle to each other. See the next species for genitalic differences.

Taxonomic notes. The type of frenata purports to be from the Moluccas, but resembles material from Sulawesi closely. A race of perichila also flies in Sulawesi. Sulawesi exclusa are generally greyer than Sundanian ones, resembling the next species in appearance, but exclusa in male genitalia. Dimorphism in Sundanian exclusa (e.g. with imprimata as a form) cannot entirely be ruled out as the differences are very small.

Geographical range. N.E. Himalaya; Sundaland (ssp. lignaria); Philippines, Sulawesi.

Habitat preference. The species is rare in lowland forest habitats.

Biology. The species has been reared from Eugenia (Myrtaceae) in Peninsular Malaysia (FRIM record).

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