View Image Gallery of The Cisthenini

This tribe was proposed by Bendib & Minet (1999) to embrace a group of taxa that had larvae without verrucae, this character state being interpreted as apomorphic, given the prevalence of verrucae in the larvae of Arctiidae as a whole and in the sister-family, the Lymantriidae. Other genera included by Bendib & Minet where larvae were unknown, were associated by having synapomorphies with genera with known larvae. These adult characters included an adult resting posture with antennae exposed, not directed backwards, antennae with a light-coloured subapical section, a forewing with a red discocellular mark, a hindwing with Rs and M1 fused, a metascutum with membranous areas, an abdomen in the male with lateral tufts of hairlike androconia, and a corethrogyne in the female.

The Bornean fauna has one of the taxa listed by Bendib & Minet, Aemene Walker, revived from synonymy with Siccia Walker but including Hyposiccia Hampson and Parasiccia Hampson, the only two other Old World taxa included by Bendib & Minet. Siccia and Aemene have a corethrogyne in the female and are therefore placed within the subtribe Clemensiiti.

Two other groups of genera may belong in the Cisthenini, but it is not clear whether their larvae lack verrucae. In the Garudinia Moore generic complex, the two larval descriptions in Piepers & Snellen (1904) are ambiguous. That for Pseudoblabes Zeller suggests setae are sparse, but that for Byrsia Walker refers to a dense covering. No larval descriptions have been located for the Macaduma Walker group.

The feature that is shared by all three Old World groups is the presence of enlarged, well defined paratergal sclerites at the junction of the vinculum and tegumen on each side, convex, rather lobed towards the exterior. It often appears as if the vinculum is twisted into this expanded junction. The feature can be seen clearly in Figs 297, 298, 308, 315 and 329. It is not clear whether this modification is homologous with the condition referred to by Bendib & Minet for the Phryganopterygini, but they state it also occurs in Miltochrista in the Nudariini. Amongst Nudariini studied for this work, it is rarely as strongly developed as in the three Cisthenini groups just mentioned and always appears less ‘lobed’. An example of strong development in the Nudariini is Lyclene poring sp. n. (Fig 160).

A corethrogyne is widespread amongst females examined by Bendib & Minet (1999), and is of distinctive form in the Garudinia complex as discussed below. However, a corethrogyne can also occur in the Nudariini, e.g. in two species groups of Lyclene (see Lyclene biseriata Hampson, Lyclene apiseriata sp.n.) where it may be homoplasious. It is present but only moderate in the Macaduma group.

In the Garudinia and Macaduma groups Rs and M1 in the hindwing are more frequently stalked than coincident, and the other potential apomorphies for groups within the tribe listed by Bendib & Minet need further investigation, e.g. members of the Garudinia complex do not have reddish discocellular marks on the forewing, and the antennae of both groups lack subapical pale zones. The antennal resting posture needs observation in the field.

The Garudinia complex is defined by a strong suite of characters in the male and female abdomen, many of which were noted for the Scaptesyle generic quartet discussed by Holloway (1984b). In the male there are slender apodemes on the eighth tergite, sometimes separate, sometimes fused into a ‘V’ or ‘Y’. In the male genitalia the valves are deeply bifid, with a rather narrow membranous dorsal part and a more strongly sclerotised, often spine-like saccular part; there is a distinctive setose pouch-like structure between the saccular bases (a possibly homologous structure is seen in Aemene pseudonigra sp. n. and “Utriculofera” macroplaga Hampson). The ductus ejaculatorius is strongly sclerotised, a feature shared with the Macaduma group; sclerotisaton is moderate in some Aemene and also some Nudariini. The female has a short ductus and extensive, but irregular spining in the bursa (though similar features occur in the Nudariini), but is particularly distinguished by the corethrogyne which has distinct zones of straight and crinkled hairs (Fig 149).

Within this Garudinia complex, many Oriental genera and the widespread Padenia Moore have a deep, often bilobed androconial hindwing in the male. The Scaptesyle quartet is defined on its distinctive facies, the forewing having a broad black border within which is a red or orange zone. Several Australasian genera belong to the Garudinia group, most endemic to, or more diverse in, New Guinea: Chiriphe Walker; Padenodes Rothschild; Paradohertya Bethune-Baker; Parascaptia Bethune-Baker; Stenoscaptia Hampson.

The Macaduma group (including, tentatively, Utriculofera Hampson) has a variably irregular forewing shape with all veins present except in Macaduma where a radial sector vein has been lost (Fig 1f). In the other genera, R1 and R2 are independent, with (R3 (R4, R5)) branching. Macaduma would fit this pattern if (R4, R5) were fused or one lost. The male abdomen in all the genera has coremata, but these differ and are diagnostic in each genus. The ductus ejaculatorius in the vesica is strongly sclerotised as in the Garudinia group. There may be a moderate corethrogyne in many members of the group.

Fig 1f: Mantala tineoides Walker

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