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Xenochroa chlorostigma Hampson
Carea chlorostigma Hampson, 1893, Illust. typical Specimens lepid. Heterocera Colln Br. Mus., 9: 101.
tumidistigma Warren, 1916, Novit. zool., 23: 220.
Carea chlorostigma ab. borneonis Strand, 1917, Arch. Naturgesch., 82 (A1): 91.
Carea chlorostigma ab.
sikkimensis Strand, 1917, Arch. Naturgesch., 82 (A1): 91.
Carea chlorostigma
borneonis Gaede and sikkimensis Gaede, 1937, Gross-Schmett. Erde, 11: 430.
Carea chlorostigma Hampson; Holloway, 1976: 23.
Xenochroa chlorostigma Hampson; Kobes, 1997: 135.


Xenochroa chlorostigma

The forewings are of a distinctive shape, apically slightly falcate and with a central angle to the distal margin, reminiscent of some
Anomis Hübner species. There are conspicuous, dark green reniform and orbicular stigmata on the forewing, the orbicular with a much larger dark green patch immediately posterior to it.

Taxonomic note. The forewing ground is paler and more variegated in ssp. tumidistigma, and there is sexual dimorphism, females being larger than males.

Geographical range. Sri Lanka, S. India; Himalaya to Sundaland, Philippines, Sulawesi (ssp. tumidistigma).

Habitat preference. The species has been rare in recent surveys, represented by three males from lowland forest (two from dipterocarp forest at 300m in the Ulu Temburong of Brunei and one from alluvial forest at the foot of G. Mulu) and two females from montane forest (1618m on Bukit Retak in Brunei and 1620m on G. Kinabalu).

Biology. Bell (MS) reared the typical race in India. The larva has the thoracic berry-shaped tumidity typical of the Careini, with a bifid prominence on A8 that is dull black, as are the anal claspers. The head is green, segments A8-10 are otherwise orange. The broad dorsal band is olive-greenish brown, with a darker dorsal line. There is a double white lateral line filled in with the dorsal colour, white or orange. There is an orange spiracular band with some purplish suffusion over the more posterior abdominal segments. Only primary setae are present.

The pupa is as in Carea angulata, with A7-10 forming a high dome without a cremaster.

The larvae are gregarious when young, separating later. They are found on the uppersides of leaves or conceal themselves with another leaf above, weaving a silken cell. They eat the cuticle of mature leaves when young, but consume the whole lamina when older. The cocoon is as in C. angulata but with the anterior peak fatter, larger, with the tip turned backwards. The surface is a glossy buffy-yellow with ‘burnt’ patches, and often has a dorsal tubercle and other tubercles on its surface.

The host-plant was not given, but Mathur (1942) noted Eugenia (Myrtaceae) and Memecylon (Melastomataceae). Brown (1968) noted Syzygium (Myrtaceae) ‘and other dicots’ as larval host-plants, and there is an unpublished IIE record of Camellia (Theaceae).

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