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Biogeography and ecology

The matrices in Table 2 provide geographic versus ecological profiles for the Hermiinae as a whole (excluding the last three genera where placement in the subfamily requires further support), and for two major generic groups (the Bertula group: Bertula to Idia; the Simplicia group: Subsimplicia to Progonia), a generic sister-pair (Paracolax and Hadennia) and for two other genera with 16 species each (Hydrillodes and Adrapsa). It is not always clear from records for Thailand whether species otherwise only recorded for Sundaland extend north of the Isthmus of Kra, and such species are recorded under the ‘Sundaland’ category.

The group as a whole shows a broad spread across the categories, with endemism at about 44%, though this is certain to be reduced as the faunas of other Sundanian areas become better known. Over half the species in the Bertula group are endemic, whereas endemism in the Simplicia group is about 40%. This latter group has significantly more widespread species and generally more tolerance of disturbance and ability to exploit open habitats. It is this group also that shows the most diversity in temperate latitudes. The other three smaller groups are somewhat intermediate.

The larval preference for withered and dead foliage, a resource available over all altitudes, has not led to more species being found over a significantly wider array of altitudinal zones, the total percentage in the sixth column being less than that for the Hypena group (Table 3).  

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