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Hydrillodes toresalis Walker
     Bleptina toresalis Walker, 1859, List Specimens lepid. Insects Colln Br. Mus., 19: 875.


Hydrillodes toresalis

Hydrillodes toresalis
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Males of this and the next species, and also plicalis Moore (Indian Subregion), are very similar: a uniform brownish grey with a prominent, deep flap at the centre of the forewing costal zone. Males of toresalis have a keel of scales on the ventral (therefore anterior) edge of the labial palps that is absent from the two other species. If this is worn, the identity should be confirmed from the genitalia (see below). Females of toresalis are similarly uniform to the males, but those of the other species have the medial zone paler, fawn. The male genitalia have the dorsal process of the valves shorter, with a further spine half its length basal to it on the costa. The ventral process is only slightly curved and has a serrated lobe centrally, and there is a spine at right-angles to the process halfway between this lobe and the apex. The aedeagus broadens distally and has a subapical spine dorsally, accompanied by two cornuti of similar size at the base of the vesica. In the other species the valve is more simply bifid, and the aedeagus has two larger, bifid spines at its apex and two cornuti at the base of the vesica. All three species have an obtuse angle to the margin of the tegumen on each side. In the female genitalia, toresalis has bifid processes flanking the ostium, each with a right-angled spine exteriorly and a more feathery process internally. In the other two species there is just a single small spine on each side.

Taxonomic note. Swinhoe (1900) placed toresalis as a synonym of H. abavalis Walker, a taxon based on three male syntypes, one from Sri Lanka and two from Sarawak. Examination of these in BMNH indicates that the two from Sarawak are conspecific with toresalis, but the one from Sri Lanka is distinct. The male genitalia of the Sri Lankan syntype abavalis have the valve processes more equal in length than in toresalis; the dorsal process has a single central spine, and the ventral one has an upturned, acute apex with a few further dentate processes just basal to it. The aedeagus has smaller spines apically and lacks the two cornuti at the base of the vesica of toresalis. The juxta has a unique pair of spines dorsally. Therefore the syntype from Sri Lanka is hereby designated LECTOTYPE of abavalis, following Prout (1928) who indicated that there were differences in the venation and size.

Geographical range. Indo-Australian tropics to New Guinea.

Habitat preference. The species is frequent from the lowlands to about 2000m.

Biology. A species tentatively identified as toresalis was reared from a larva feeding on pericarp detritus of Dipterocarpus (Dipterocarpaceae) (Robinson et al. 2001).

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