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Macaldenia palumba Guenée
Hulodes palumba Guenée, 1852, Hist. Nat. Insectes, Spec. gén. Lépid. 7: 211.
Remigia colligens Walker, 1865, List Specimens lepid. Insects Colln Br. Mus., 33: 1019.
Parallelia palumba Guenée; Holloway, 1976: 30; Kobes, 1985: 46.
Macaldenia palumba Guenée; Kobes, 1992: 44.

Macaldenia palumba

. This is a rather uniform ashy grey species with rather obscure darker markings; these are strongest on the hindwing at the tornus and postmedially, where a conspicuous and diagnostic row of small white lunules occurs.

Taxonomic note. There is possibly a second species overlapping with palumba in New Guinea and occurring also in St. Matthias I. and the Solomons that has more contrasty wings, mainly due to a darkening of the oblique forewing submarginal and through the white lunules on the hindwing. Differences in male genitalia are minor and variable, but the uncus tends to be less domed, the valves are narrower with a more slender and falcate costal process. The major diverticulum of the aedeagus vesica tends to be narrower and the spines on it somewhat smaller. A larger sample needs to be dissected to elucidate this further and eliminate the possibility that this is merely a clinal situation with much variability in New Guinea.

Geographical range. Oriental Region to Japan (Okinawa I.) and Sundaland; possibly extending east to New Guinea. (see above) and occurring on Guam in Micronesia.

Habitat preference. The species is infrequent but recorded from a variety of habitats from the lowlands to 1930m.

Biology. The larva was illustrated and described by Moore (1884-1887) and Semper (1896-1902), and described by Bell (MS). The prolegs on A3 are very small, those of A4 slightly reduced, and those on A5 and A6 are normal. There is a pair of prominent conical tubercles on A8. The head is marbled yellow and brown, speckled with black. The body is olive-green, yellowish from A3 to A6, mottled with brown and grey and spotted with black, with large subdorsal black spots on each side of A1. The illustration by Moore shows the larva darker laterally and whitish ventrally, and Moore referred to pinkish grey spots in a greyish sublateral line. Semper illustrated a generally grey larva.

The pupa has a bluish white powdery bloom, and pupation occurs on a leaf that has had an edge turned over to form a more or less cylindrical cell.

The host plants recorded by Bell are
Atalantia and Paramignya in the Rutaceae. Records for Citrus in the same family (Robinson et al., 2001) may be genuine larval records or may refer to adult fruit-piercing. Moore (1884-1887) and Semper (1896-1902) gave Citrus as a host, the former quoting Thwaites. A specimen from Guam submitted in 2004 to the Natural History Museum Insect Identification Service had been reared on foliage of Citrofortunella (Rutaceae; Citrus x Fortunella).

The adult is a fruit piercer in Thailand (Bänziger, 1982; Kuroko & Lewvanich, 1993).

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