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Mocis frugalis Fabricius
Noctua frugalis Fabricius, 1775, Syst. Ent.: 601.
Chalciope lycopodia Geyer, 1837, Hübner’s Zuträge Samml. exot. Schmett., 5: 25.
Remigia translata Walker, 1865, List Specimens lepid. Insects Colln Br. Mus., 33: 1015.
Remigia nigripunctata Warren, 1913, Gross-Schmett. Erde, 3: 333.
Mocis frugalis Fabricius; Holloway, 1976: 31; Kobes, 1985: 49.

Mocis frugalis

Diagnosis. The general ground colour of both wings is as in Trigonodes hyppasia, but lacking the black triangles. There are oblique, straight, anteriorly convergent postmedial and submarginal fasciae in darker brown, the former linear, paler edged basad, and the lattter punctate. There is also a darker brown shade longitudinally and subdorsally extending from the postmedial basad.

Taxonomic note. Zilli (2000b) recognised that the old concept of frugalis is better treated as two distinct species: Afrotropical proverai Zilli; Indo-Australian frugalis.

Geographical range. Indo-Australian tropics east to Rapa I.

Habitat preference. The species is usually found in similar habitats to its congener, but records extend up to 1620m.

Biology. There are several accounts of the life history (Moore, 1884-1887; Semper, 1896-1902; Gardner, 1941, 1947; Sevastopulo, 1948).

The egg is darkish green, blotched with dark purple, spherical with numerous vertical ribs. The larva lacks prolegs on A3 and A4. The head is blackish, divided by numerous fine, pale lines. The larva is greenish initially, greenish white or pale brown when mature. The greenish white larva (Sevastopulo) has three purple lines on each side. The browner one (Moore) has several longitudinal lines of darker brown. The most detailed description (Gardner) has the body with a dorsal white stripe containing two red lines. This stripe is flanked by broader, streaky blackish stripes which can extend and darken towards the spiracles. Below there is a yellow stripe that extends to below the spiracles, with numerous red or brown striae above the spiracles, and two further black lines.

Pupation is in a cocoon with leaves, soil or detritus bound together with silk.

Most host plants (Robinson
et al., 2001) are Gramineae, including Andropogon, Eleusine, Oryza, Panicum, Paspalum, Saccharum, Sorghum and Zea, but other monocotyledons are also noted: Typhonium (Araceae); Cyperus (Cyperaceae); Zingiberaceae. Some Leguminosae (Glycine, Medicago, Vigna) are also recorded.

The adult is known as a fruit piercer in Thailand (Bänziger, 1982; Kuroko & Lewvanich, 1993).

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