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Grammodes geometrica Fabricius
Noctua geometrica Fabricius, 1775, Syst. Ent. p. 599.
Phalaena ammonia Cramer, [1779] 1782, Uitlandsche Kapellen, 3: 98.
Grammodes bifulvata Warren, 1913, Gross-Schmett. Erde, 3: 331.
Grammodes orientalis Warren, 1913, Gross-Schmett. Erde, 3: 331.
Grammodes geometrica Fabricius; Holloway, 1976: 31; Kobes, 1985: 46.

Grammodes geometrica

. The forewing is distinctly marked by a white band flanked by two broader black ones, the more distal also edged narrowly with white. None of these bands reaches the costa, which is broadly grey-brown.

Geographical range. Mediterranean east to Oriental and Australasian tropics.

Habitat preference. Singletons have been recorded in dry heath forest at 15m at Telisai and dipterocarp forest at 30-60m near Labi in Brunei, and in an area of cultivation near forest at Bundu Tuhan (1200m) on the slopes of G. Kinabalu. Records by Chey 1994 of G. samosira Kobes (= occulta Berio) from plantation forest in Sabah have proved on dissection of males to be referable to geometrica. However, occulta and geometrica occur together in both Sumatra and Australia (E.D. Edwards in Nielsen et al. (1996); pers. comm.), and so the former may well be found in Borneo in future.

Biology. The larva has been illustrated by Ohbayashi & Takeuchi (1996), who reared it on Okinawa I. It is an elongate semi-looper with A3 absent and A4 reduced. There are no tubercles on A8, the body curving down gently and smoothly to the anal prolegs. The head is pale ochreous with black spots. The body has longitudinal red lines dorsally and dorsolaterally, the latter with small, pale-ringed black circles on each of A1-A4. The rest of the body down to the spiracles amongst the red lines consists of dense blue-black stippling on a pale whitish ground, the stippling tending to form longitudinal lines. Below the spiracles the body is ventrolaterally white with three rather irregular pinkish-red longitudinal lines. The illustrations do not show the ventral surface clearly.

The wild host recorded by Ohbayashi & Takeuchi was
Phyllanthus (Euphorbiaceae), but in captivity it will accept Sapium from the same family (Koshino, 1999). Robinson et al. (2001) recorded a much wider Oriental host range: Cistus (Cistaceae); Diospyros (Ebenaceae); Ricinus (Euphorbiaceae); Oryza, ‘grasses’ (Gramineae); Polygonum (Polygonaceae); Ziziphus (Rhamnaceae); Tamarix (Tamaricaceae).

Bänziger (1982) recorded the adult as piercing fruit in Thailand.

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