species: vacillans Walker,
(type species tauralis Walker = nealcesalis Walker,
Dominican Rep.), praeocc.; Chirconia Schaus
(type species anartoides Walker, Venezuela); Diodines
(type species trilinea Schaus, Ecuador); Duriga Schaus
(type species nealcesalis Walker, Dominican Rep.); Matiloxis
(type species rubromarginata, Schaus, Mexico); Mecynoptera
(type species convergens Schaus, Costa Rica), praeocc.;
(type species transcissa Walker, Australia, = subcupralis
Old World Tropics); Symplusia Holland (type species frequens
W. Africa, = subcupralis).
genus, as currently constituted (Poole, 1989), is pantropical and moderately
diverse in all regions, more so in the Neotropics. The Bornean Radara apicaloides Poole
has been transferred to the hypenine genus Hiaspis Walker
by Lödl (1998), where it reverts to its original name, apicalis
in this genus are small, with characteristic reddish brown forewings that are
apically acute and are usually obtusely angled at the centre of the distal
margin. The medial and postmedial are straight at the boundary between darker
brown that grades paler basad and much paler brown that grades darker distad.
These fasciae are well separated at the costa and more or less convergent at the
dorsum through the obliqueness of the medial. The hindwings are medium brown,
with the abdomen, particularly in males, extending well beyond them. The general
build of the species is similar to that in Hepatica
(p. 452) Acidon and Hiaspis (Hypeninae),
(Herminiinae). The male antennae are fasciculate in vacillans,
fasciculate-serrate in subcupralis and the Bornean species.
male abdomen (Old World taxa) the counter-tympanal hood is postspiracular. The
eighth segment is of the framed, corematous type. The genitalia have the valves
simple, tongue-like, tapering slightly distally, often with a slight appressed
process subbasally on the costa, with a shallowly curved pleat surrounding it.
The tegumen and vinculum are of equal length, and there is a structure that may
be a paratergal sclerite. The aedeagus vesica is broad with about four lobes and
sometimes a cornutus.
female genitalia (subcupralis), the seventh segment is only slightly modified, and
the ostium is a broad, deep pocket associated with the eighth segment. The
ductus bursae is moderate, narrow, sclerotised.
genus is most diverse in the New World with about 20 species and has four
Afrotropical ones and one in Madagascar. The Afrotropical subcupralis also occurs in the Indian Subregion and Australia,
but the Bornean species is strictly Oriental. One species (apicaloides
has been transferred to Hiaspis by Lödl (1998)
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