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Hulodes Guenée

Type species: caranea Cramer, Java.

Synonym: Hylodes Hampson (unjustified emendation of Hulodes) praeocc.

Species of Hulodes are all large with characteristic facies. The male antennae are finely ciliate, the tibiae densely scaled and with hair pencils. The hindwing is usually angled at M3 on the margin and sometimes also (caranea Cramer group) more weakly at M1. The cells of fore- and hindwings are relatively short. The pattern always includes more or less straight submarginals that define a distinct marginal zone. The more basal fasciae vary in course and are less clearly defined, though the postmedial is distinctly darker and finely castellated on the hindwing underside, more weakly so on the forewing. The forewing reniform is usually evident, moderate, lunulate on the upperside, but there are dark dots discally on all wings on the underside. The labial palps have the third segment longer (half the length of the second in males, slightly larger in females) and slender in drylla and allies, but it is much shorter and more robust in males only of the caranea group. This group shows more pronounced sexual dimorphism, and males have a small crest of scales on the first tarsal segment of the foreleg.

In the male abdomen, the eighth segment is only slightly modified, with short broad apodemes at the anterior corners of the tergite, and with the posterior margin of the sternite distinctly concave. In the genitalia, the uncus apex is of the compressed ball-and-claw type, with a narrow cleft between the ball and the claw. A scaphium is present, and the juxta is of the inverted ‘Y’ core catocaline type. The valves are somewhat corematous apically, but generally narrow, without processes, though sometimes with the margins angled. The aedeagus is slender, with a vesica with long diverticulum with reversed spines that has a few smaller ones at its base that are less heavily ornamented or not at all. Their aedeagus structure is similar to that seen in
Ericeia Walker and Lacera Guenée.

The female genitalia (
donata Schultze) have the seventh sternite triangular, with the ostium at its apex; however, it is only very slightly shorter than the tergite. The ductus is long, slender, sclerotised, strap-like, with the ovate and faintly rugose bursa set asymmetrically on it, with a slightly coiled appendix bursae at the opposite side to this junction, giving rise to the ductus seminalis. At the distal end of the bursa are two inconspicuous longitudinal bands of longer, slender spicules.

One of the two Bornean species and H. drylla Guenée occur in India and were distinguished there by Srivastava (1992). A third Indian species is brought out of synonymy with drylla Guenée below.

Host records are from several plant families as indicated below, though Leguminosae are common to both Bornean species. Miller
et al. (unpublished) have reared a larva of H. ischnethes Prout from Tarenna (Rubiaceae) in New Guinea.

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