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Ctenoplusia sigillata Dufay 
Acanthoplusia sigillata
Dufay, 1970: 105.
    Plusia confusa Moore, sensu Holloway, 1976: 32. P. confusa Moore is a junior primary 
        homonym  of P. confusa Stephens; tarassota Hampson is the next available name.

Ctenoplusia sigillata

This is one of the largest Bornean plusiines. It has a rather speckly brown forewing and a diagnostically entire, diffuse, paler band distally adjacent to the postmedial.

Taxonomic notes. Dufay (1970) placed this and related species in a new genus, Acanthoplusia, most species having blade-like setae on the ventral margin of the valve, itself centrally constricted, and a pouch with small dark scales subbasally on the exterior of the valve. He included mainland Oriental species such as agnata Staudinger (China, Japan), ichinosei Dufay (Japan), and tarassota Hampson (N.E. Himalaya; Java, Bali), a Sundanian species, vermiculata Dufay (Sumatra; his Javan paratype may be tarassota), and two more easterly taxa, latistigma Prout (Ceram) and eugraphe Hampson (New Guinea). The ornamentation of the aedeagus vesica of tarassota, sigillata and latistigma is very similar except the central ‘comb’ of cornuti is not based on a sclerotised band in latistigma. In eugraphe this ‘comb’ is absent and there are two elongate subbasal zones of spines running parallel to each other. C. sigillata differs from tarassota in the more finely speckled appearance of the forewings, and the more heavily sclerotised bursa and ductus in the female genitalia; the appendix bursae is more prominent.

C. vermiculata Dufay differs from the rest of the group in the lack of setal blades at the ventral edge of the valve. In forewing facies and other genitalia characters it conforms with the rest of the group. Compared with Javan tarassota the valve apical half is narrower and there are differences in the harpe and clavus; the aedeagus vesica has similar ornamentation though the distal and basal patches of scobination have much shorter spines, and those on the central ‘comb’ are more strongly curved.

These Acanthoplusia species are here placed in Ctenoplusia by virtue of sharing the setal blades of the ventral margin of the male valve. Therefore Acanthoplusia Dufay sinks to Ctenoplusia Dufay, (Ichinose, 1973).

Geographical range. Philippines (Luzon), Borneo.

Habitat preference. The species was taken in numbers on G. Kinabalu from 1200m to 2600m, being commoner at 2000m and above. During the Mulu survey a single specimen was taken at the summit of G. Mulu (2360m). This is the only definitely strictly montane plusiine in Borneo, though two other species have only been taken at altitude.

Biology. C. ichinosei has been recorded as feeding as a larva on Arctium (Compositae) and Panax (Araliaceae) by Miyata (1983).

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