View Image Gallery of Subfamily Pantheinae

Unlike the previous three, this subfamily is hard to define satisfactorily and may prove to contain a paraphyletic assemblage of genera. The main characteristics used at present to recognise the subfamily are hairy eyes in combination with quadrifine hindwing venation. No common features were observed during investigation of the Bornean species so each genus will be discussed in some detail at the expense of the introductory section.

The subfamily is based on the genus Panthea Hübner, of which the type species is the European coenobita Esper. The species has simple, tapering valves in the male genitalia, and a pair of massive, posteriorly curved socii either side of a much smaller, vertically flattened uncus.

There are only three species in Borneo, one belonging to a Sundanian genus of two species, one in a new genus with a more widespread Oriental species, and one in a widespread Palaearctic, Himalayan and Oriental montane genus that relates most closely to taxa in Ceram and Sulawesi. Both the first and last species are montane, the other possibly more lowland in character.

Sumatra, Java and Bali are richer in pantheines, again mainly montane; the Himalayan Tambana entoxanthia Hampson is found in Java; the Himalayan and E. Asian genus Anacronycta has perhaps three species in these islands. This greater representation of Himalayan-montane genera in Sumatra and Java has already been observed in the Notodontidae (Holloway 1983) and also occurs in the Thyatiridae. The Sumatran Pantheinae and Thyatiridae will be discussed by Kobes (in press).

In Peninsular Malaysia Mr H.S. Barlow has taken a species of the genus Elydnodes Hampson, possibly new or a subspecies of ornata Wileman & West, otherwise only known from Luzon. The genus contains one other species, variegata Leech from China.

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