Type species: aerata Moore = hyalinata Kollar.
Synonym: Euctenostega Prout (type species hypsicyma Prout)
This genus brings together a number of different species groups with a
variety of structures in the male genitalia. Two features of the forewing
indicate it to be a natural grouping: vein M2 has migrated anteriorly to become
stalked with M1 at the anterior angle of the cell separate from the radial
system; there is a distinctive kidney-shaped fovea, concave dorsad, with
transverse carinae, situated immediately dorsad from CuA in the cell (Fig. 1).
The fovea is unique within the Ennominae. It is lacking in Euctenostega but
has probably been secondarily lost as the only species included shares a number
of other features, including distinctive wing pattern, with P. spilodesma Prout.
The species groups have a variety of facies types, but one feature
common to most is a pale postmedial band that contains dark spots. These spots
indicate the irregularity of the vein spacing on the forewing caused by the
anterior migration of M2. Only P. xanthyala and relatives, convergent on Zamarada
in facies, lack this band: they are also unique in showing strong sexual
The male antennae are bipectinate in all groups except that including
the type species, where they are strongly ciliate. There are no definitive
features in the male or female genitalia (though the signum is not circular but
bilaterally symmetrical on a linear base) at a generic level but, as with the
facies, such features serve to delimit species groups. These are as follows:
The typical group: P. hyalinata (India to China and Japan), P.
venetia Swinhoe. The wings are brown or yellowish brown, the bands broad,
yellow, fawn, hyaline. The male genitalia have the ventral portion of the valve
deep, triangular, the dorsal arm sharply right-angled centrally. The aedeagus
vesica has a basal cornutus and, in venetia a distal one that is
secondarily scobinate, tending towards the condition in the P. trigonata Walker
group. The signum in the bursa has its base set more or less longitudinally: it
is transverse in the other groups when present.
The P. trigonata Walker group: trigonata and allies as
described below, flavomaculata Swinhoe, bifasciata Warren (Hainan,
Burma). Species in this group have the wings almost blackish, traversed by
yellow white bands. The aedeagus vesica has a distal cornutus with secondary
spining, massive in all except the sister-pair of flavomaculata and bifasciata.
This pair has the valve simple, triangular. In the remaining species the
valves are bilaterally asymmetric, with complex spining along the costal margin,
adpressed in the undescribed Sulawesi species (slides 15626, 15884), but
in prominent erect clumps in trigonata and two new Bornean species. These
three are characterised by extreme asymmetry of the valve, triangular processes
laterally on the tegumen, and the basal part of the bursa longitudinally
corrugate and ridged internally with small spines.
The Euctenostega group: P. hypsicyma, P. spilodesma and a
new species, P. hypsidesma described below (all Borneo). The wings are
reddish pink to grey, banded and irrorated dull yellow. The forewings have
irregular bands and a weaker submarginal. In the male genitalia the uncus has
lateral setose lobes subbasally. In hypsicyma and hypsidesma the
fovea is lacking.
The P. sobrina Prout group: this consists solely of P. sobrina,
a large species with bluish grey wings, obscure fasciae and highly modified
male genitalia: the arms of the valve and corema are long, narrow: the uncus has
socii and a pair of massive ear-like processes arising subbasally from the
dorsal surface. The bursa copulatrix lacks a signum.
The P. xanthyala Hampson group: P. xanthyala, P. oblectata Prout
(Seram) and an undescribed species from Sulawesi: (slide 6414). The facies is
similar to that of Zamarada species, with a green, hyaline basal zone,
and there is sexual dimorphism, particularly strong in the more easterly
species. The male genitalia have the ventral portion of the valve tapering,
incurved, and the dorsal arm is strongly angled, with an additional subbasal
The genus, though broadly Oriental, has by far its greatest diversity in
The larva of the type species was described by Singh (1957) as
close in key characters to that of Zamarada, differing in having four
pairs of setae on the anal shield instead of five.
In Japan the type species has been recorded by Sato & Nakajima
(1975) from Hypericum (Guttiferae). Singh noted the species from
an 'unknown creeper'.
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