Superfamily BOMBYCOIDEA (177 species)

Family SPHINGIDAE (115 species)

Subfamily SMERINTHINAE (29 species)

Amplypterus panopus Cramer (Part 3, p. 128). Oriental tropics to Sundaland, Wallacea, Seram. Lowland, (montane). Note 104. Note 104. The range of Amplypterus panopus was extended eastwards by description of ssp. seramensis Inoue (1999c).

Ambulyx sericeipennis Butler (Part 3, p. 129; as joiceyi Clark). India, China, Taiwan, Sundaland, Philippines. Lowland forest to lower montane. Note 105. Note 105. Kobayashi et al. (2006) placed joiceyi Clark as a subspecies of Ambulyx sericeipennis Butler (India, China, Taiwan), together with javanica Clark (Java) and luzoni Clark (Philippines). Brechlin (2009d) added ssp. palawanica Brechlin from Palawan and recognised tobii Inoue from Japan as a good species rather than as a subspecies of sericeipennis.

Ambulyx obliterata Rothschild (Part 3, p. 129). Sundaland. Lowland forest to lower montane.

Ambulyx substrigilis Westwood (Part 3, p. 130). Indian Subregion to Sundaland, Palawan. Lowland to montane.

Ambulyx tattina Jordan (Part 3, p. 130). Sundaland, Philippines. Lowland, montane.

Ambulyx pryeri Distant (Part 3, p. 131). S. Burma, S Thailand, Sundaland, Palawan, Flores, Sumbawa. Lowland to upper montane (see Schulze et al. (2000) for histogram of sampling on G. Kinabalu). Note 106. Note 106. Brechlin (2009c) reviewed the distribution of A. pryeri and described a new subspecies, tenggarensis Brechlin, from Flores and Sumbawa; its association and status were supported by DNA barcoding evidence.

Ambulyx clavata Jordan (Part 3, p. 131). Sundaland. Lowland, (montane).

Ambulyx canescens Walker (Part 3, p. 132). S.E. Asia, Sundaland. Lowland to upper montane. Note 107. Note 107. Brechlin (2009c) described a new subspecies of A. canescens, flavocelebensis Brechlin, from Sulawesi. This separation was supported by evidence from DNA barcoding. Brechlin & Kitching (2010a) raised flavocelebensis and flava Clark (Philippines) to full species status. Chey (1996) described and illustrated the larva of canescens. It was feeding on Dryobalanops (Dipterocarpaceae), adding further to host plant records exclusively from Dipterocarpaceae for this species.

Ambulyx moorei Moore (Part 3, p. 132, as subocellata C. & R. Felder). Oriental tropics to Sundaland. Lowland to upper montane. Note 108. Note 108. Kitching & Spitzer (1995) established that moorei Moore was an older name than subocellata C. & R. Felder for this Ambulyx species. Brechlin & Kitching (2010a) have discussed more easterly taxa in the moorei group.

Clanis bilineata Walker (Part 3, p. 133). Oriental tropics and subtropics to Sundaland. (Lowland forest).

Clanis stenosema Rothschild & Jordan (Part 3, p. 134). Sundaland, Palawan. Lowland forest.

Marumba cristata Butler (Part 3, p. 135). N.E. Himalaya to Sundaland. (Lowland to lower montane forest).

Marumba sperchius Ménétriés (Part 3, p. 135). N. India to Korea; Borneo, Sumatra. (Lowland to upper montane).

Marumba juvencus Rothschild & Jordan (Part 3, p. 136). Sundaland. Lowland to lower montane.

Marumba tigrina Gehlen (Part 3, p. 136). Sundaland, Palawan. (Lowland to lower montane).

Marumba dyras Walker (Part 3, p. 136). Oriental tropics to Sundaland, Philippines, Lesser Sundas. (Coastal).

Marumba spectabilis Butler (Part 3, p. 137). Himalaya to Taiwan, Sundaland, Sulawesi. Montane.

Daphnusa ocellaris Walker (Part 3, p. 138). S. Burma, S. Thailand, Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra, Borneo, Palawan. Lowland forest, (to upper montane)(see Schulze et al. (2000) for histogram of sampling on G. Kinabalu). Note 109. Note 109. Brechlin (2009a) has revised the genus Daphnusa, concluding, with supporting evidence from DNA barcoding, that the traditional concept of ocellaris in fact embraced several species, two described as new, with ocellaris more or less restricted to Sundaland. The other species are: sinocontinentalis Brechlin (N. Burma, N. Thailand, Vietnam, S. China, N. India); zythum Haxaire & Melichar (Mentawi Is.: Siberut); fruhstorferi Huwe (Java, Bali) and philippinensis Brechlin (Philippines). The more distinctive D. ailanti Boisduval flies in Sulawesi from where there is also a questionable record of ocellaris (Cadiou & Holloway, 1989).

Cypa decolor Walker (Part 3, p. 139). Burma to New Guinea. Lowland to upper montane; (see Schulze et al. (2000) for histogram of sampling on G. Kinabalu).

Cypa sp. (I.J. Kitching, pers. comm.). Endemic. (Montane). Note 110. Note 110. Material of a new Cypa species has been taken at 1680m on Bukit Pagon in Brunei by T.W. Harman in 1981 and is currently being studied by I.J. Kitching.

Cypa terranea Butler (Part 3, p. 140, under Smerinthulus). Peninsular Malaysia, Borneo. (Lowland). Note 111. Note 111. The  Cypa species terranea Butler, duponti Roepke and uniformis Mell all have straight fasciation on the hindwing underside as indicated for terranea in Part 3, but the material to hand then covered under that species was mixed. Plate 15 in Part 3 correctly illustrates terranea, but the genitalia in fig 152 were from a specimen of duponti, a somewhat paler species. The situation was clarified by Kitching & Cadiou (2000), who retained the taxon brooksi Clark as a synonym of terranea. C. terranea is rarer than duponti in Borneo (see next Note), and is only known in Borneo from two specimens from disturbed lowland localities.

Cypa duponti Roepke (Beck & Kitching, 2006). Sundaland. (Lowland) to lower montane. Note 112. Note 112. C. duponti was recorded formally for Borneo by Beck & Kitching (2006), though material had already been confused with terranea in Part 3 as indicated in the previous Note. The species was illustrated by Diehl (1980 [1982]: Plate V, 36), but misidentified as C. pallens brooksi. The dissected specimen of duponti referred to in the previous note is that listed for terranea in Part 3 from lower montane forest at 900m on G. Api. A further duponti male has been taken at Telupid in the lowlands of Sabah (in FRC, Sepilok), and there is another that was taken at 1618m on Bukit Retak in Brunei. The specimen attributed to terranea by Harman (1981) from Seria in the lowlands of Brunei has not been re-examined, but could also be duponti. There is also material of duponti from the Crocker Range (1300m) and G. Trus Madi (1200m) in the collections of J. Haxaire and R. Brechlin (I.J. Kitching, pers. comm.). Kitching & Cadiou (2000) indicated that typical Javan duponti differed slightly from material from the rest of Sundaland.

Cypa uniformis Mell (Inoue, 1991, as attenuata Inoue). S. China, Himalaya, Borneo. (Lowland to montane). Note 113. Note 113. Inoue (1991) described C. attenuata as a new species from Borneo, but it proved to be a subspecies of C. uniformis Mell (Kitching & Cadiou, 2000). The type material of attenuata was taken in Sabah at 1400m in the Crocker Range near Keningau (holotype male) and at Keningau without more precise data (paratype male). The typical race of C. uniformis is from S. China, ssp. pallens Jordan occurs in the Himalayan region from N.W. India and Nepal, and is also in Yunnan, and ssp. attenuata is only known from northern Borneo.

Smerinthulus diehli Hayes (Part 3, p. 140). Sundaland. (Lowland, lower montane).

Smerinthulus quadripunctatus Huwe (Part 3, p. 141). Sundaland, Thailand. (Lowland to upper montane). Note 114. Note 114. Cadiou & Kitching (1990) described Smerinthulus quadripunctatus ssp. cottoni from Thailand. Tennent (1991) recorded a further Bornean specimen of the species at 720m in lower montane forest.

Smerinthulus dohrni Rothschild & Jordan (new record). Sundaland. (Lowland). Note 115. Note 115. A single specimen of S. dohrni was taken in 1992 by M.A. Cook at Kuala Belalong in the lowland forest of Brunei.

Degmaptera olivacea Rothschild (Part 3, p. 141). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. Lowland to lower montane. Note 116. Note 116. Brechlin & Kitching (2009a) described a species closely related to Degmaptera olivacea from Palawan, D. cadioui Brechlin & Kitching.

Callambulyx amanda Rothschild & Jordan (Part 3, p. 142, as rubricosa Walker). Thailand, Sundaland, Palawan. Lowland forest (see Schulze et al. (2000) for histogram of sampling on G. Kinabalu). Note 117. Note 117. Tennent (1991) recorded five more specimens of Callambulyx amanda in hill dipterocarp forest at 125m and 320m in Brunei and Sarawak. He noted a dark green form as well as the reddish form illustrated in Part 3. Kitching & Spitzer (1995) established that amanda Rothschild & Jordan was distinct from rubricosa Walker. The latter only occurs on Java in Sundaland.

Sataspes javanica Roepke (Part 3, p. 143, as infernalis Westwood). Sundaland. (Lowland). Note 118. Note 118. The Sataspes specimen filmed visiting a flower at Poring is illustrated in Plate 8.  It bears some resemblance to the holotype from Borneo of f. glossatrix Rothschild & Jordan, attributed to infernalis Westwood, but now associated with javanica Roepke as discussed next. Schulze et al. (2000: 8) also recorded a specimen of Sataspes from Poring. Brechlin & Kitching (2009b) assigned all Sundanian specimens of Sataspes to javanica Roepke on the basis of genitalia features, as characters of facies proved to be unreliable, and described two new species from the Philippines. They also presented a review of the whole genus, including separation of S. xylocoparis Butler from S. infernalis Westwood. Li (1994) has described the life histories of tagalica and infernalis in Hong Kong, though before distinction of the duplex nature of the latter, but it is probable that it is xylocoparis, the only one of the two currently recorded from China. Both fed on Dalbergia (Leguminosae).

Subfamily SPHINGINAE (10 species)

Agrius convolvuli Linnaeus (Part 3, p. 120). Old World tropics and subtropics. Lowland open habitats; montane (hill topping?)(see Schulze et al. (2000) for histogram of sampling on G. Kinabalu).

Megacorma obliqua Walker (Part 3, p. 121). Indo-Australian tropics. Lowlands; montane (hill topping?).

Acherontia lachesis Fabricius (Part 3, p. 121). Oriental Region, Moluccas, New Guinea. Lowlands to montane; (see Schulze et al. (2000) for histogram of sampling on G. Kinabalu).

Acherontia styx Westwood (Part 3, p. 122). Oriental Region, Moluccas. Lowland to lower montane agricultural).

Meganoton analis Felder & Felder (Part 3, p. 123). N.E. Himalaya, Taiwan, Sundaland. Lowland to montane (see Schulze et al. (2000) for histogram of sampling on G. Kinabalu).

Meganoton nyctiphanes Walker (Part 3, p. 124). Indian Subregion to Sundaland, Palawan. (Lowland forest to lower montane).

Meganoton rubescens Butler (Part 3, p. 124, as rufescens Butler). Indo‑Australian tropics. Lowland to lower montane. Note 119. Note 119. The name rufescens Butler, traditionally applied to this species of Meganoton, is a junior primary homonym, for which rubescens Butler is the replacement name (Kitching & Cadiou, 2000).

Psilogramma menephron Cramer complex; macromera Butler (Part 3, p. 125). Indo‑Australian tropics. Lowland to upper montane (hill-topping) (see Schulze et al. (2000) for histogram of sampling on G. Kinabalu). Note 120. Note 120. The taxonomy of Psilogramma in the region is still very confusing, as indicated by comparison of Kitching & Cadiou (2000), Brechlin (2001) and Brechlin & Kitching (2010b) with Eitschberger (2001a, 2001b, 2004, 2010a, 2010b). A comprehensive review of the genus is being prepared by R. Brechlin and I.J. Kitching. Western populations of menephron show differences from those from further east, including the specific type locality (Ambon in the Moluccas). The name that is currently considered (e.g. Eitschberger, 2001b) to be applicable to populations on Borneo is macromera Butler (Diludia macromera Butler, 1882, Ann. Mag. nat. Hist (5), 10: 435).

Psilogramma increta Walker complex; rupprechtorum Eitschberger (Part 3, p. 125, with menephron). Oriental tropics to Sundaland. (Lowland to lower montane). Note 121. Note 121. Psilogramma increta is now confirmed as a distinct species (e.g. Hogenes & Treadaway, 1998; Kitching & Cadiou, 2000; Beck & Kitching, 2006). Kitching et al. (2000) considered the Bornean species to be increta when they described P. villani Kitching, Treadaway & Hogenes from the Philippines and Sulawesi. Brechlin (2001), Eitschberger (2001a) and Brechlin & Kitching (2010b) have treated more easterly populations of the increta complex. Sundanian populations do show differences from those of the Asian mainland, but the nomenclatural situation requires further resolution, as does that for menephron itself as discussed above: The name currently applicable to Bornean material is rupprechtorum Eitschberger (2001a), but this may prove to be conspecific with other Sundanian taxa in the group named by Eitschberger (I.J. Kitching, pers. comm.). The larva and pupa of what is probably the same species as in Borneo has been illustrated by Leong (2009e). It is a somewhat emerald green, with attenuating chevrons of pale and dark green down its dorsal surface extending onto the flanks, broken at their angles by a narrow, yellowish dorsal line. There is a row of white tubercles across T2, and the anal horn also bears a mixture of small and large spines. The host plant was Spathodea campanulata (Bignoniaceae).

Dolbina borneensis Brechlin (Part 3, p. 127, as krikkeni). Endemic. (Montane). Note 122. Note 122. The Dolbina species present in Borneo is a member of the inexacta Walker group rather than krikkeni Roesler & Küppers, a smaller species that is probably restricted to north-west Sumatra and has slight differences in the forewing shape and male genitalia (see also Hogenes & Treadaway, 1998). However, Brechlin (2009b) revised the genus and subdivided inexacta into several species, including borneensis Brechlin. The Philippines populations are described as D. luzonensis Brechlin (Luzon) and D. mindanaensis Brechlin (Mindanao), and the most south-easterly species is schnitzleri Cadiou from Sulawesi.

Subfamily MACROGLOSSINAE (76 species)

Cephonodes picus Cramer (Part 3, p. 144). Indo‑Australian tropics. (Coastal areas, open habitats).

Cephonodes hylas Linnaeus (Chey, 2005). Old World tropics. Lowland. Note 123. Note 123. Chey (2005) reared Cephonodes hylas from larvae found on Mitragyna (Rubiaceae) in the lowlands of Sabah. It is distinguished from picus in Part 3: 144.

Gnathothlibus erotus Cramer (Part 3, p. 145). Indo‑Australian tropics, Polynesia. (Lowland to upper montane).

Daphnis hypothous Cramer (Part 3, p. 146). Indo‑Australian tropics. Lowland to upper montane (see Schulze et al. (2000) for histogram of sampling on G. Kinabalu).

Daphnis nerii Linnaeus (Chey, 2002). Old World tropics to Sundaland and Philippines. Lowland. Note 124. Note 124. Daphnis nerii has been recorded from Borneo on several occasions since publication of Part 3 in 1987 (e.g. Chey, 2002), and also from the Philippines (Hogenes & Treadaway, 1998). A brief diagnosis was provided in Part 3 (p. 146). Detailed accounts of the life history are provided by Chey (2002) and by Leong & D’Rozario (2009b).

Daphnis placida Walker (Part 3, p. 147). Sundaland to New Caledonia. Lowland to upper montane.

Elibia dolichus Westwood (Part 3, p. 148). N.E. Himalaya, Sundaland, Palawan. Lowland (see Schulze et al. (2000) for histogram of sampling on G. Kinabalu).

Acosmeryx anceus Stoll (Part 3, p. 149). Indo‑Australian tropics. Lowland, mainly disturbed habitats.

Acosmeryx shervillii Boisduval (Part 3, p. 149). Indian Subregion, Sundaland, Palawan. Lowland (to upper montane) (see Schulze et al. (2000) for histogram of sampling on G. Kinabalu).

Acosmeryx pseudonaga Butler (Part 3, p. 149; as shervillii form). Thailand, Vietnam and S. China to Sundaland, Palawan. Lowland (to upper montane). Note 125. Note 125. Acosmeryx shervillii and A. pseudonaga were treated as forms of the same species in Part 3, with the comment that they might prove to be distinct. They are regarded as distinct by Hogenes & Treadaway (1998), who suggested that shervillii came to light somewhat later in the night, and by Haxaire (1999). This distinction was confirmed by Brechlin & Kitching (2007). A. pseudonaga is not so widely distributed on the Asian mainland as A. shervillii, and is represented in the Lesser Sundas Is. from Lombok to Timor and Wetar by A. tenggarensis Brechlin & Kitching.

Acosmeryx pseudomissa Mell (Haxaire, 1999: 194). S. China through S.E. Asia to Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. Montane Note 126. Note 126. Haxaire (1999) recorded A. pseudomissa for the first time in Borneo, taking nine specimens in montane forest in the Crocker Range of Sabah. This population is now regarded as a separate species and will be described in the near future (I.J. Kitching, pers. comm.).

Dahira falcata Hayes (Part 3, p. 151, under Gehlenia). Sundaland. Lower to (upper montane). Note 127. Note 127. Brechlin (2000) placed Gehlenia Bryk as a synonym of Lepchina Oberthür, and commented generally on the relationship of this genus to Acosmeryx and one other from the Asian mainland, Dahira Moore, and Deidamia Clemens, a monobasic genus in N. America. Brechlin & Melichar (2006) subsequently synonymised Lepchina with Dahira, transferring all the species in the former to the latter. D. falcata and D. rebeccae Hogenes & Treadaway (Philippines) are the most southeastern members of Dahira.

Eupanacra busiris Walker (Part 3, p. 152, under Panacra). N.E. Himalaya to Sundaland, Philippines, Sulawesi. (Lowland). Note 128. Note 128. The type specimen of the type species of Panacra is a specimen of Hippotion velox Fabricius, therefore Panacra is a synonym of Hippotion Hübner (Cadiou & Holloway, 1989); Eupanacra Cadiou & Holloway, type species dohertyi Rothschild, was described for those species traditionally placed in Panacra. E. busiris schuetzi Hogenes & Treadaway occurs in the main Philippines archipelago, and E. busiris myosotis Cadiou & Holloway occurs in Sulawesi, extending the range of the species into Wallacea from that given in Part 3.

Eupanacra variolosa Walker (Part 3, p. 152, under Panacra). N.E. Himalaya to Sundaland, Palawan. (Lowland).

Eupanacra psaltria Jordan (Part 3, p. 153, under Panacra). Borneo, Sumatra. (Lowland, lower montane). Note 129. Note 129. E. dohertyi is a synonym of E. regularis Butler (Java).

Eupanacra regularis Butler (Part 3, p. 153, under Panacra, as dohertyi Rothschild). Sundaland, Palawan. Lowlands (to open habitats, lower montane). Note 129. Note 129. E. dohertyi is a synonym of E. regularis Butler (Java).

Eupanacra automedon Walker (Part 3, p. 154, under Panacra). N.E. Himalaya to Sundaland. (Lowland?). Note 130. Note 130. E. automedon was reared from a late instar larva by Leong (2009a), who illustrated the final stages and metamorphosis in colour. The penultimate instar is a jade-green, faintly speckled darker, with a paler beige, straight anal horn; an incipient pair of ocelli was faintly present on A1. In the final instar, these ocelli become black with yellow and brown surrounding marks; there are a few white spots between the ocelli. The body becomes pale brown with darker oblique shading and a fine dark dorsal line. The horn becomes shorter, curved and also dark brown with a pale tip and a paler wedge up its basal flanks. The host plant was Lasia spinosa (Araceae).

Eupanacra malayana Rothschild & Jordan (Part 3, p. 154, under Panacra). Sundaland, Philippines. Lowland.

Eupanacra elegantulus Herrich‑Schäffer (Part 3, p. 155, under Panacra, as mydon Walker). N. Thailand, Sundaland to Wallacea and Sumba. Lowland. Note 131. Note 131. E. elegantulus was placed as a subspecies of E. mydon Walker in Part 3, but was treated as distinct by Inoue et al. (1997).

Eupanacra hollowayi Tennent (Tennent, 1991). S. Thailand, Peninsular Malaysia, Borneo, Sumatra. (Lowland). Note 132. Note 132. Diehl (1980) illustrated a Sumatran species as E. psaltria Jordan that was indicated to be a new species in Part 3. It was subsequently found in Borneo (a singleton at 125m on Bukit Bahat in Brunei) and described as E. hollowayi Tennent (Tennent, 1991). It can readily be distinguished by the straight, broad, pale buff band incorporated in the forewing postmedial, running directly into the angles of the submarginal white chevrons. It was also described as Eupanacra hogenesi from Peninsular Malaysia by Haxaire (1993), who later (1999) placed it as a synonym of hollowayi. E. psaltria was recorded as a genuine Sumatran species by Diehl (1997).

Angonyx testacea Walker (Part 3, p. 156). Indo‑Australian tropics. (Lowland), lower montane, (upper montane).

Enpinanga vigens Butler (Part 3, p. 157). Sundaland. Lowland forest.

Enpinanga borneensis Butler (Part 3, p. 157). Sundaland. Lowland forest. Note 133. Note 133. The biology of Enpinanga borneensis has been described and illustrated by Leong (2008a). It is pale green through all instars, developing a yellow to orange lateral flange over the thoracic area in later ones as well as oblique pale yellow lines laterally. The anal horn becomes bluish grey, thicker and apically downturned. The host plant was Dillenia (Dilleniaceae).

Eurypteryx bhaga Moore (Part 3, p. 158). N.E. Himalaya, Sundaland, Sulawesi. Lowland (to upper montane).

Eurypteryx shelfordi Rothschild & Jordan (Part 3, p. 159). Borneo, Sumatra. (Lowland).

Eurypteryx alleni Hogenes & Treadaway (Part 3, p. 159, as falcata Gehlen; Hogenes & Treadaway, 1993). Sundaland, Philippines. Lowland (to lower montane). Note 134. Note 134. Eurypteryx alleni was considered to be as distinct from E. falcata Gehlen (New Guinea) by Hogenes & Treadaway (1993).

Giganteopalpus mirabilis Rothschild (Part 3, p. 160). Sundaland. (Lowland, upper montane).

Macroglossum lepidum Rothschild & Jordan (Part 3, p. 161). Nias, Borneo, Philippines. (Lowland limestone forest).

Macroglossum fritzei Rothschild & Jordan (Part 3, p. 161). China, Ryukyu Is., Borneo. (Lowland to upper montane).

Macroglossum passalus Drury (Part 3, p. 161). Japan, Oriental tropics to Sundaland, Philippines. (Lowland to upper montane),

Macroglossum faro Cramer (Part 3, p. 162). Oriental tropics to Sundaland, Philippines. (Lowland forest).

Macroglossum mitchelli Ménétriés (Part 3, p. 162). Oriental tropics to Sundaland. (Lowland to upper montane).

Macroglossum multifascia Rothschild & Jordan (Part 3, p. 163). Sundaland, Philippines. (Lowland).

Macroglossum prometheus Boisduval (Part 3, p. 163). Indo-Australian tropics. (Coastal).

Macroglossum mediovitta Rothschild & Jordan (Part 3, p. 164). Japan, S. China, Thailand, Sundaland, Philippines, ?Sulawesi. (Lowland).

Macroglossum corythus Walker (Part 3, p. 164). Indo‑Australian tropics. (Lowland hill forest to upper montane).

Macroglossum sylvia Boisduval (Part 3, p. 165). Sundaland to New Guinea. (Lowland).

Macroglossum semifasciata Hampson (Part 3, p. 165). Burma to Sundaland, Palawan. (Lowland, lower montane).

Macroglossum hemichroma Butler (Part 3, p. 165). N.E. Himalaya to Sundaland, Philippines. (Lowland).

Macroglossum aquila Boisduval (Part 3, p. 166). N.E. Himalaya to Sundaland, Philippines. (Lowland forest).

Macroglossum variegatum Rothschild & Jordan (Part 3, p. 166). Oriental tropics to Sundaland, Philippines. (Lowland).

Macroglossum divergens Walker (Part 3, p. 166, as heliophila Boisduval). Indo‑Australian tropics. (Lowland to upper montane). Note 135. Note 135. Macroglossum divergens Walker was placed as a subspecies of M. heliophila Boisduval by Kitching & Cadiou (2000) who overlooked the fact that divergens was the older name. Therefore divergens must be restored to specific rank, stat. rev., with heliophilastat. nov. and queenslandi Clark as subspecies (I.J. Kitching, pers. comm.).

Macroglossum troglodytus Boisduval (Part 3, p. 167, as insipida Butler). Indo‑Australian tropics. (Lowland). Note 136. Note 136. Kitching & Cadiou (2000) placed M. troglodytus Boisduval as a junior synonym of M. insipida Butler, but in fact troglodytus is the senior name (I.J. Kitching, pers. comm.) and should be restored to specific rank, stat. rev., with insipida as a synonym, syn. n., and papuanum Rothschild & Jordan as a subspecies, comb. n.

Macroglossum limata Swinhoe (Part 3, p. 168, as pseudungues Holloway). Sundaland, Thailand, Vietnam. Lowland, (upper montane). Note 137. Note 137. The name pseudungues Holloway is a synonym of limata Swinhoe (Kitching & Cadiou, 2000), a taxon that had been regarded as a synonym or race of M. ungues Rothschild & Jordan (e.g. in D’Abrera (1986)).

Macroglossum gyrans Walker (Part 3, p. 168). Indo-Australian tropics. (Lowland to upper montane).

Macroglossum amoenum Rothschild & Jordan (Tennent, 1991). Singapore, Bangka I., Borneo, Sumatra. (Lowland, lower montane). Note 138. Note 138. M. amoenum was recorded by Tennent (1991) from lower montane forest (720m) on G. Serapi in Sarawak. There is also material from Pontianak in Kalimantan. Diehl (1997) recorded the species from Sumatra and illustrated it; otherwise it is only known from Bangka I. and Singapore (Tennent, 1991).

Macroglossum poecilum Rothschild & Jordan (Beck & Kitching, 2006). Ryukyu Is., Borneo. (?Montane). Note 139. Note 139. M. poecilum is represented in BMNH by old material from G. Marapok in Sabah that was overlooked in 1987 for Part 3. This material was not mentioned either by Rothschild & Jordan (1903), who only recorded the species from the Ryukyu Is.

Macroglossum glaucoptera Butler (Beck & Kitching, 2006). Oriental tropics to Sundaland and Philippines. No precise habitat data. Note 140. Note 140. There is material of M. glaucoptera labelled ‘N. Borneo’ in the Carnegie Museum, Pittsburgh (I.J. Kitching, pers. comm.).

Macroglossum pyrrhosticta Butler (Beck & Kitching, 2006). N. India to Japan, Sundaland, Philippines and Flores. No precise habitat data. Note 141. Note 141. There is material in the Carnegie Museum, Pittsburgh, of M  pyrrhosticta collected by Waterstradt in the vicinity of G. Kinabalu (I.J. Kitching, pers. comm.).

Macroglossum avicula Boisduval (Schulze et al. 2000: 12). Sundaland, Philippines. (Montane?). Note 142. Note 142. M. avicula was recorded for the first time in Borneo by Schulze et al., (2000), a single specimen taken by a road by the Mamut Copper Mine (600‑1000m) near G. Kinabalu.

Macroglossum haslami Clark (Schulze et al. 2000: 13). Philippines, Sulawesi, Borneo. (Montane). Note 143. Note 143. The first M. haslami for Borneo was recorded by Schulze et al. (2000), taken at dusk at flowers at the Kiau Gap site (1760m) on G. Kinabalu.

Macroglossum vicinum Jordan (Schulze et al. 2000: 13, as piepersi Dupont & Roepke). India, Sundaland. (Lowland). Note 144. Note 144. M. vicinum Jordan was recorded from Borneo as its synonym (Kitching & Cadiou, 2000), piepersi Dupont & Roepke, by Schulze et al. (2000: 13).

Hippotion velox Fabricius (Part 3, p. 170). Old World tropics and subtropics. Lowland open habitats (to upper montane).

Hippotion celerio Linnaeus (Part 3, p. 170). Old World tropics and subtropics. Lowland open habitats (to upper montane). Note 145. Note 145. Chey (2003) described and illustrated the life history of Hippotion celerio on Caladium (Araceae) in Sabah.

Hippotion echeclus Boisduval (Part 3, p. 171). Oriental tropics. Lowland open habitats.

Hippotion boerhaviae Fabricius (Part 3, p. 172). Indo‑Australian tropics. Lowland, (lower montane open habitats).

Hippotion rosetta Swinhoe (Part 3, p. 173). Indo-Australian tropics. Lowland open habitats (to upper montane) (see Schulze et al. (2000) for histogram of sampling on G. Kinabalu).

Hippotion rafflesii Moore (Beck & Kitching, 2006). Oriental tropics. (Lowland cultivation). Note 146. Note 146. H. rafflesii was recorded by J. Beck (pers. comm.) at 350m in an area of cultivation, orchards and scrub, 7km E. of Poring Hot Springs in the Kinabalu area in the course of a sampling programme for Sphingidae in Borneo.

Theretra nessus Drury (Part 3, p. 174). Indo-Australian tropics. (Lowlands to upper montane) (see Schulze et al. (2000) for histogram of sampling on G. Kinabalu). Note 147. Note 147. Leong & Lim (2009) described and illustrated the final stages of the life history of Theretra nessus, much as described in Part 3 for the Bornean form of the larva. The host-plant was Dioscorea (Dioscorenceae).

Theretra boisduvalii Bugnion (Part 3, p. 174). S.W. Asia to Sumatra and Borneo. Lowland to upper montane. Note 148. Note 148. Vaglia et al. (2010) have discovered that two very similar species have been confused as T. boisduvalii, flying together through much of the Oriental Region. The name sumatrensis Joicey & Kaye (= mercedes Eitschberger) is applicable to the second species. Whereas boisduvalii is greenish, sumatrensis is brown with a greyish tint. On the underside, boisduvalii has the medial fascia of the wings evident, whereas it is obscure or absent in sumatrensis. In the male genitalia, the harpe of sumatrensis forms a flat, somewhat trapezoidal plate with four little ridges, the two largest more or less apical or slightly displaced to the internal margin; in boisduvalii the harpe is more massive and the dorsal margin is divided into two parallel leaflets, each bearing about ten small, regular teeth, and the distal margin is more rounded. In these characters of the harpe, boisduvalii is closer to T. clotho, and sumatrensis is closer to T. rhesus; see the next two Notes.

Theretra sumatrensis Joicey & Kaye (Vaglia et al., 2010). N.E. India through S.E. Asia to Sundaland and Lesser Sundas. (Lowland to upper montane - confused with boisduvalii). Note 149. Note 149. Vaglia et al. (2010) have separated populations of the T. rhesus complex east of Weber’s Line as a distinct species, T. insularis Swinhoe. They also described a distinct species in the complex from the Philippines, T. acuta Vaglia & Liyous.

Theretra rhesus Boisduval (Part 3, p. 175). Sundaland, Lesser Sundas, Philippines, Sulawesi, ?Taiwan. Lowland (to lower montane) (see Schulze et al. (2000) for histogram of sampling on G. Kinabalu). Note 149. Note 149. Vaglia et al. (2010) have separated populations of the T. rhesus complex east of Weber’s Line as a distinct species, T. insularis Swinhoe. They also described a distinct species in the complex from the Philippines, T. acuta Vaglia & Liyous.

Theretra clotho Drury (Part 3, p. 175). Oriental tropics to Sundaland and Philippines. Lowland. Note 150. Note 150. Vaglia et al. (2010) described a distinct subspecies of T. clotho from the Philippines, T. vincenti Vaglia & Liyous, but treated more easterly populations (Buru to Queensland and the Solomons) as distinct: T. celata Butler, placing babarensis Eitschberger as a subspecies. They also noted that the New Caledonian representative, lifuensis Rothschild, had been reinstated as a good species earlier (Lachlan, 2004).

     The biology of clotho in Singapore has been documented by Leong, Shunari & Harvey-Samuel (2010). Two brown form larvae were illustrated as described in Part 3, one with a row of lateral ocelli posterior to the large one on A1, and one without such a row. A green form larva lacking lateral ocelli was also illustrated. The host plant was Cissus (recorded in Part 3 also).

Theretra latreillii MacLeay (Part 3, p. 176). Indo‑Australian tropics. Lowland. Note 151. Note 151. The correct spelling for this Theretra species is latreillii, not latreillei; see also Tennent (1991).

Theretra alecto Linnaeus (Part 3, p. 177). S.W. Asia to Japan, Sulawesi and Kei. Lowlands, cultivated areas.

Theretra suffusa Walker (Part 3, p. 177). Japan, Oriental tropics to Sundaland, Palawan. Open lowland habitats. Note 152. Note 152. Leong & D’Rozario (2009a) described the life history of T. suffusa, illustrating the brown form of the larva. This has the conspicuous row of ocelli noted for the green form in Part 3. The host plant recorded was also Melastoma (Melastomataceae).

Theretra oldenlandiae Fabricius (Part 3, p. 178). Indo-Australian tropics and subtropics. Open lowland habitats.

Theretra silhetensis Boisduval (Part 3, p. 179). Indo-Australian tropics. Open lowland habitats.

Pergesa acteus Cramer (Part 3, p. 179, under Rhyncholaba Rothschild & Jordan). Oriental tropics and subtropics, Moluccas. Open lowland habitats. Note 153. Note 153. Rhyncholaba Rothschild & Jordan is a junior objective synonym of Pergesa Walker (Part 6, p. 99). Leong & D’Rozario (2009c) have illustrated and described the life history of acteus, featuring the green form of the larva as illustrated in Part 3.

Rhagastis castor Walker (Part 3, p. 180). N.E. Himalaya to Sundaland. (Upper montane).

Rhagastis albomarginatus Rothschild (Part 3, p. 181). N.E. Himalaya to Taiwan and Sundaland. (Lowland to montane). Note 154. Note 154. Schulze et al. (2000) recorded 22 more specimens of Rhagastis albomarginatus in the Kinabalu area, 12 from Poring (450‑650m) and 10 from Sayap (1000m).

Rhagastis rubetra Rothschild & Jordan (Part 3, p. 182). Sundaland. Lowland forest.

Cechenena lineosa Walker (Part 3, p. 182). N. India to Taiwan and Sundaland. Lowlands to upper montane, forested habitats (see Schulze et al. (2000) for histogram of sampling on G. Kinabalu).

Cechenena subangustata Rothschild (I.J. Kitching, pers. comm.). Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra, ?Borneo, Bali. No precise habitat data. Note 155. Note 155. Cechenena subangustata Rothschild was treated as a Sundanian (Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra) race of lineosa Walker, but now appears to be a distinct species, though the situation may only be resolved by molecular analysis. Though the bulk of Bornean material in collections is of lineosa, I.J. Kitching (pers. comm.) is aware of one possible specimen of subangustata in the Carnegie Mueum, Pittsburgh, taken by J. Waterstradt in the vicinity of G. Kinabalu, but this should be re-examined. The Barcode of Life Database (BOLD) does not include subangustata from Borneo though there is one specimen from Bali (I.J. Kitching, pers. comm.).

Cechenena helops Walker (Part 3, p. 182). Indo‑Australian tropics. Lowlands to upper montane. (see Schulze et al. (2000) for histogram of sampling on G. Kinabalu). Note 156. Note 156. The mature larva and metamorphosis of C. helops was illustrated and described by Leong & Aminurashid (2008), adding much more detail to the brief description in Part 3. The prepupal larva was orange-brown with an angular lateral expansion on each side of the thoracic region, giving prominence to the pair of ocelli at the anterior of A1 abutting the margin of T3. These ocelli were linked by a darker brown transverse bar. This is bisected by a fine dark brown dorsal line that runs from the top of the head to along the horn on A8, though fades somewhat just prior to the horn. The larva was found making a shelter for pupation by pulling together leaves of Melastoma (Melastomataceae) with silken threads. The authors noted that all host records have been from Tetrastigma (Vitaceae).

Cechenena chimaera Rothschild (Part 3, p. 183, as aegrota Butler). Sundaland, Palawan. Lowlands (to upper montane). Note 157. Note 157. Haxaire & Kitching (2003) reviewed the complex of three species associated with, and including, C. aegrota Butler, and considered that Sundanian material was distinct from mainland Asian aegrota, the oldest name available being chimaera Rothschild. A third species, transpacifica Clark, flies in the main Philippines archipelago (Hogenes & Treadaway, 1998).


Copyright Southdene Sdn. Bhd. All rights reserved.