FAMILY LIMACODIDAE
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Setora Walker

Type species: nitens Walker
This is a large and complex genus containing numerous rather similar bronzy brown species with its centre of diversity in mainland Asia but extending as far east as Sulawesi. The species are serious pests of a variety of crops and will be treated in more detail in Cock, Godfray & Holloway (in press). The name Setora nitens as used in the economic literature embraces a complex of half a dozen or more species, two of which occur in Borneo with a third more distinctive one (tamsi Hering).

The forewing facies has elements in common with Praesetora and Birthamoides in that a more or less oblique, but in this case curved post- medial converges at the costa with a submarginal; the submarginal is usually diffuse, reflective, and often obscure. In many species there is a triangular zone of paler brown subapically on the costa

The antennae are broadly bipectinate to one third and the palps typical of the crescent-signum group. Most species have a white patch at the apex of the foretibia though S. tamsi is an exception.

The male genitalia are typical of the ground plan except the valves when spread on a slide are more acutely angled to the vertical axis by 30
rather than between 60 and at right angles to it. The furca arms are out-curved, sabre-like. The aedeagus usually has a group of very small spines just subapically.

The female genitalia are typical of the crescent-signum group, the ductus bursae being sclerotised basal to the ductus seminalis in the two Bornean members of the nitens complex but not in some mainland Asian taxa or those from Sulawesi and the Philippines. The tergite of the eighth segment is distally scobinate in most species, and in the Bornean species of the nitens complex it is produced in two lateral lobes that overlap the ovipositor lobes.

The larvae of nitens group species are parallel sided, deeper than broad, with the row of laterals complete, small to very small alternately. Of the subdorsals those of T2 are small, T3 large, Al and A5 moderate, and A8 large. Both the large pairs have the spines black banded, the laterals on T3 are similar and the small ones on T2 also invested with black. The rest are as the ground colour. The larva is usually green with a dorsal band that is mainly blue and lateral row of oblique reddish brown oval marks between the tubercle positions above the laterals. The ground colour can be yellow-green or shades of red (Piepers & Snellen 1900).

A wide range of host-plants has been recorded for the complex (Piepers & Snellen 1900; Wood 1968; Kalshoven 1981; unpublished CIE records): Musa (Musaceae); Elaeis, Cocos (Palmae); Theobroma (Sterculiaceae); Coffea, Cinchona (Rubiaceae); Nephelium (Sapindaceae); Camellia (tea, Theaceae); Citrus (Rutaceae); Pittosporum (Pittosporaceae); Nicotiana (Solanaceae); Elettaria (Zingiberaceae).

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