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The Gogana kerara Swinhoe group

Within Gogana there remains a very difficult complex of rather similar species that, because of the strong sexual dimorphism, cannot be resolved with confidence as material is very limited. It will probably only be totally clarified by the rearing of siblings from the same mother.

Some named taxa are based on males, some on females 'marriages' can only be tentative for the reasons stated. Males have deep, quadrilateral forewings with oblique or slightly angled fasciation. The hindwings are much reduced in size, triangular, with the generic scale tuft prominent. Females have the wings more equal in area, the hindwing produced apically into a single or closely double angle. The forewings are more elongate than in the male, the distal margin more irregular and often excavate on either side of the central angle.

The male genitalia have minor variations on the generic theme but these appear to be of three distinct types, within each of which there are variable facies forms.

Several species have been reared by H. Steiner in Peninsular Malaysia, but these do not always match specimens from Borneo closely. The larvae are remarkably uniform in appearance (below), shades of leaf green with rings of scoli on each segment as in G. abnormalis, though the suranal process is more elongated. The head has two narrow black stripes on each side dorsally that all converge (but do not meet) at the vertex. Some of the head setae are black. The most dorsal rows of scoli on each side are within narrow, sometimes broken, white or cream longitudinal bands. In some larvae the prothoracic scoli are longer, black, and the cream bands are double: the central pair of black stripes on the head lie close together in this form.

Gogana sp. of kerara group

The host-plants recorded are all palms in the genera Calamus, Daemonorops and Orania.

The Bornean fauna includes at least the following species.

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