The scale of measurement given in description of new species is from the centre of the thorax to the forewing apex. The scale on each genitalia photograph represents 1mm. 

Information on habitat preference has been gained almost entirely from light trap surveys of G. Kinabalu (Holloway, 1976), the G. Mulu National Park (Holloway, 1984a), from collections made by Col. M.G. Allen, T.W. Harman and colleagues in Brunei and by A.H. Kirk-Spriggs and Dr S.J. Willott in Sabah. Additional data on the fauna of softwood plantations and material from the Forest Research Centre Collection, Sepilok, have kindly been made available by Dr Chey Vun Khen of the Sabah Forest Department (Chey, 1994). Broad vegetation categories were discussed in Part 4 of this series.

Data on geographical range are mainly from the collections of The Natural History Museum (BMNH), but with some additional data on the Sumatran fauna that have been made available through the collecting activities of Dr E. Diehl and other members of the Heterocera Sumatrana Society. Data for Peninsular Malaysia are supplemented from the collections of Mr H.S. Barlow and FRIM, the latter particularly through recent surveys conducted by Dr J. Intachat.

A few host-plant data are drawn from unpublished records of the International Institute of Entomology. These are collated from material submitted to the Institute for identification from throughout the Indo-Australian tropics. Of particular note in recent years are records from material submitted by the Indian Central Agricultural Research Institute Station in the Andaman Is. Plant nomenclature follows Mabberley (1987).

Holotypes of new taxa have been deposited in The Natural History Museum except where indicated to the contrary.

Nomenclatural details of all genus-group names are to be found in Watson, Fletcher & Nye (1980), and are therefore not repeated here. These authors did not indicate generic gender. Whilst the Code of Zoological Nomenclature stipulates that adjectival species-group names should agree in gender with the genus-group name, the application of this is fraught with difficulty (Holloway, 1993[4]). Given modern requirements for computerised database construction, and given the confusion that rectification would be likely to cause amongst users of biosystematics not familiar with the niceties of the Latin language, all species names given here have the orthography of the original description. The reader should also note that the convention of putting author names in parentheses, where the genus of combination is not the original one, has not been followed as the situation is clear from the synonymy attached to each species treated.

The classification by Hampson (1900) relied heavily on characters of wing venation. Such characters appear generally to be of greater significance in the Lithosiinae at generic level than in other moth groups, and many of the venation drawings in Hampson are therefore reproduced here (Fig 1, Fig 2, Fig 4, Fig 5, Fig 6,  Fig 7, Fig 10) On the other hand, his reliance primarily on such characters has led to many genera being depositories for suites of unrelated taxa, a situation revealed particularly when male and female genitalia are dissected. Where possible, such genera have been revised and their taxa redistributed amongst more appropriate genera. But in many cases this proved impossible, particularly for the genus Eilema Hübner. Then the characteristics of the type species of the genus are described, and inappropriately assigned species are retained within it with the genus-group name in inverted commas. The taxonomic note for each will indicate the manner in which these species differ significantly from the typical.

Efforts have been made to examine all relevant type specimens. Most were in The Natural History Museum but there are also significant holdings in the University Museum Oxford (mostly material collected by Alfred Russel Wallace in Sarawak and described by Francis Walker) and in the Nationaal Natuurhistorisch Museum “Naturalis”, Leiden (types of Snellen, Heylaerts, van Eecke and Roepke).

The Lithosiinae have a number of extremely species-rich genera in Borneo, and some of those containing smaller sized moths proved to have over half their species undescribed. Thus 2 of 17 Cyana Walker and of 19 Barsine Walker, mostly large in size, were new, whereas 9 of 18 Teulisna Walker, 20 of 34 Eugoa Walker, 19 of 32 Lyclene Moore and as many as 12 (80%) of 15 Adites Moore required description. 30% of the Bornean fauna is here described as new.

Adites, Barsine and Lyclene are genera in the Nudariini that are considered here to be the best depositories for the bulk of the Bornean taxa previously placed in Asura Walker and Miltochrista Hübner as discussed. (see Asura Walker).

Unassigned, possibly plesiomorphic genera
The six genera treated first are, for reasons given (see Introduction), considered to be plesiomorphic within the subfamily, but either lack the features used to distinguish the tribe Lithosiini that follows, or these features (e.g. of early stages) have yet to be investigated. The first three are part of a complex of taxa that was included in the genus Agylla Walker in the past (e.g. Hampson, 1900). The last three are part of a complex of genera that share striking forewing patterns of blue-black on pale dull yellow. The comments on Agylla larval characters and adult resting posture in Bendib & Minet (1999) refer only to this genus in its strict New World sense. The data on larvae of Old World taxa do not give details of chaetotaxy, and their adult resting posture is ambiguous, with it being involute in the blue-black and yellow complex and involute to tectiform in many of the Old World “Agylla” complex. Only Vamuna Moore holds the wings at rest in the manner considered apomorphic for the Lithosiini by Bendib & Minet (1999), as discussed (see Lithosiini). However, the forewing facies of Hesudra species, grey with a paler costal edge, is similar to that of many Lithosiini. Loss of hindwing veins is rare (one lost in Chrysaeglia Butler; Fig 1d).

Chrysaeglia magnifica Walker

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