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Cyana Walker

Type species: detrita Walker, Bangladesh.

Synonyms: Bizone Walker (type species perornata Walker); Chionaema Herrich-Schäffer (type species puella Drury, India); Clerckia Aurivillius (type species fulvia Linnaeus, “Indonesia”); Doliche Walker (type species gelida Walker, Bangladesh); Exotrocha Meyrick (type species liboria Stoll, Sierra Leone); Gnophrioides Heylaerts (type species flaviplaga Heylaerts, Java); Isine Walker (type species trigutta Walker, Sierra Leone); Leptothrix Heylaerts (type species tettigonioides Heylaerts, Sumatra) praeocc.; Macronola Kirby (unnecessary replacement name for Cyana Walker); Sphragidium Butler (type species miles Butler, Solomon Islands).

This genus was known for many years as Chionaema (e.g. Hampson, 1900, who treated it as an older name than Cyana), but Cyana was later established as the oldest name (e.g. Roepke, [1946a]; Roesler & Küppers, 1976). More recently, Cernı (1993) placed the majority of the species in Doliche, suggesting that the type species of Chionaema was distinguished from the rest on the grounds of it having a spiny sclerotisation on the aedeagus, and rather distinctive external features (e.g. grey, irregular fasciation and rather reduced male secondary sexual characters). However, Cyana is retained for the group here, following Nielsen et al. (1996), as the secondary sexual features are certainly within the range of variation seen in the rest of the genus, the discal area has spots, albeit rather diffuse ones, and it is possible that the rugosity of the aedeagus is an autapomorphy. Furthermore, Cernı failed to list any synapomorphies that bring together all the other species within his concept of Doliche. For example, there is a complex of grey species (e.g. obscura Hampson, fumea Hampson) in Australia and New Guinea where there is great variation in secondary sexual features, and another complex of striking yellow, orange, red and black species (the name Sphragidium Butler would be applicable to this group) in Australia, New Guinea and the Melanesian archipelagoes discussed by Holloway (1984). One can agree with Cernı that there is a fundamental revision required to clarify relationships within this extensive genus, but for this reason not follow him in prematurely giving generic status to taxa with unusual morphology but instead seek to identify distinct groupings within the complex as a first step to elucidating relationships.

The presence in the male of some sort of secondary sexual feature between the discal part of the cell and the costa is perhaps the most consistent feature for the genus (Fig 10i), and perhaps strong transverse red, orange or yellow fasciation to the forewings, and spotting in the discal area is also part of the generic ground plan. The male genitalia have the valves strongly divided, the saccular process usually ending in a taper and curve to an acute apex. The aedeagus vesica, when ornamented, tends to have scobinate zones or clumps of spines rather than single cornuti. The female genitalia frequently have a large appendix bursae and/or corrugation in the bursa, and the signa, when present, are scobinate patches typical of the family, one or two in number.

Fig 10i: Cyana pudens Walker

Most of the Oriental species have typical transverse fasciation on a white ground, as do many of the African species in the genus. This facies type extends as far east as the Moluccas (e.g. impunctata Felder), but the rest of the Australasian species belong the the grey or Sphragidium complexes mentioned above. Atypical facies is seen also in the dark, narrow-winged Sundanian species flaviplaga Heylaerts and tettigonioides Heylaerts (see below). These both have in the aedeagus vesica a long diverticulum that terminates in a fusion of a few large but very short spines not seen in any other species examined. They are probably a sister-pair for which the genus-group name Gnophrioides is available.

Amongst the typical species there are a number of groups that can be defined on particular features of facies or male genitalia, as discussed below. The Philippines appear to have been a centre of speciation for several lineages, as indicated by Cernı, whereas Sulawesi is characterised more by single, morphologically isolated endemics. The structure of the androconial patch of the male forewing may provide some guide to species groupings. Amongst Bornean species, it usually consists of a circular pad on the underside just basal to the postmedial. In perornata Walker this is joined by an elliptical pad basal to it, twice as long with a longitudinal groove. A similar secondary pad, but without a groove, is seen in conclusa Walker and the malayensis Hampson group, but is absent or much reduced in cruentata Talbot, maiae sp. n. and inconclusa Walker. The secondary pad is very much larger than the circular one in horsfieldi Roepke and costifimbria Walker, both of which have very much larger fringes of scales from the costa on the upperside of the forewing. The remaining species lack a secondary pad and have the circular one much smaller or, in the case of infantula Hampson, vestigial.

As well as the works cited above by Roepke and Cernı covering the S.E. Asian fauna, some Sumatran species were described by Roesler & Küppers

The life histories of three Javanese species not represented in Borneo were described by Piepers & Snellen (1904). The larvae (all illustrated) are generally dark, marbled blackish brown or blackish grey, with groups of long black setae on verrucae. There are often paler whitish, ochreous or red markings on the thorax, in the anal area and in rows in each segment, often incorporating the verrucae. A similar larva of C. hamata Walker from Japan was illustrated by Issiki et al. (1965) and Sugi (1987), the latter also illustrating the cocoon and pupa.

The cocoon is much larger than the pupa, ovate, suspended from a vertical surface, consisting of a very widely spaced but regular net of silk, including the secondary setae, through which the pupa, suspended vertically in the centre, can be seen clearly (Fig 3). The secondary setae are set to curve over two apertures in the outer cocoon, top and bottom.

Fig 3. Cocoon and pupa of Cyana sp., Peninsular Malaysia. Scale is 1cm

The larvae of all three species fed on mosses that grow on damp walls or tree-trunks. Sugi (1987) also noted that this genus feeds on lichens. Records from higher plants (e.g. Yunus & Ho (1980); Zhang (1994); unpublished IIE records) may be erroneous, merely records of the tree on which moss or lichen was growing. However, Kuroko & Lewvanich (1993) noted larvae of one species as feeding on leaf tissue (see Cyana sp. 4802).

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