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Carea parangulata Kobes
Carea parangulata Kobe
s, 1997: 92.


Carea parangulata

Diagnosis and taxonomic note.
Members of this complex are redder than varipes, some purplish red, but are particularly distinguished by a strongly bifalcate distal margin to the forewing. Typical
angulata Fabricius is restricted to the Indian Subregion and S. China, though the genitalia and facies of subangulata Kobes (1997; Sumatra, Java, Bali) are very similar to those of angulata, and this taxon may therefore be merely a Sundanian race of that species. There are larger, more purplish red species in Sundaland (though some angulata specimens are also more purplish red) for which material is limited. Kobes (1997) recognised two of this complex in Sumatra, though he attributed one to angulata; the other is parangulata Kobes, represented by only the holotype. These both have much longer, more slender, curved cornuti near the base of the vesica in the same position to those of angulata, but differ slightly in facies and the number of such cornuti. A Sumatran specimen in BMNH (slide 17240) appears somewhat intermediate, and there is variability in the two Bornean males dissected, so it is probable that there is just one variable species involved. In Peninsular Malaysia there is an externally similar species with distinctive genitalia in both sexes. The males (slides 17243, 17264) have a stepped saccular margin to the valve, an aedeagus vesica with a basal, rasp-like sclerotisation and a much more distal group of straight cornuti. The females (slides 17254, 17266) have a narrower basal section of the ductus that broadens into a thickened and scobinate zone extending into the junction of the much larger bursa with the appendix bursae.

Geographical range. Sumatra, Borneo, ?Palawan (in ZMUC, not dissected).

Habitat preference. Two females are from lowland localities: Ulu Belait in Brunei; Bidi in Sarawak. One male is from lowland dipterocarp forest in Barito Ulu, Kalimantan and two others are from 1465m on Bukit Retak in Brunei and (in USNM) from 1560m on G. Kinabalu.

Biology. Bell (MS) reared angulata in India (see also Gardner (1941) and Mathur (1942)). The larva has the thoracic segments swollen, berry-like, shining green like a fruit of its host-plant. The body tapers from A1 to A8; A8 bears a dorsal conical tubercle. Primary setae only are present. The surface is smooth, dullish except for the thorax and the tubercle of A8 which are shiny. On the ochre-yellow abdominal segments there are dorsolateral, lateral and subspiracular longitudinal white lines. Dorsally there is a thin, pulsating greenish band bordered by single rows of brownish dots. White extends between the dorsolateral and lateral lines on A1, A2 and part of A3, but posterior to that the intervening area is dull to bright orange. Fuscous maroon suffusion occurs below the lateral on A4 to A8; on A2 and A3 this area is bright orange. A green variant is also described.

The pupa is enclosed in a light cream-coloured cocoon spun between two flat leaves on oval foundations of silk to form a thick disc. It may also be formed in a bark crevice (Mathur).

The host-plant was Eugenia (Myrtaceae). Mathur (1942) noted this host also, with Eucalyptus in the same family, Ficus (Moraceae) and Memecylon (Melastomataceae). Kuroko & Lewvanich (1993) noted a member of the complex as feeding on Eugenia in Thailand, and there is also a record (IIE, unpublished) from Cleistocalyx (Myrtaceae) in Hong Kong. Robinson et al. (2001) added Bombax (Bombacaceae) and Syzygium (Myrtaceae).

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