SUBFAMILY HYPENINAE
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Hypenagonia Hampson

Type species: vexataria Walker, see below.

Synonyms: Hypenagoniodes Strand (type species vexatariola Strand, Taiwan); Hypenarana Bethune-Baker (type species rosacea Bethune-Baker, New Guinea).

Species in this genus have narrow, bifalcate forewings and somewhat elongate hindwings that are produced slightly at the anterior angle. The markings of the forewings are strong, oblique, and reflected by those on the hindwings, these running generally parallel to the distal margin. The forewing discal mark is usually bipunctate, black, and there is sometimes a darker longitudinal streak through the postmedial to the angle of the distal margin. The male antennae are strongly ciliate. The labial palps are directed forwards, the third segment shorter than the second. In the forewing venation, R1 rises independently from the rest of the radial sector veins, and R5 is connate with R2-4, the latter with R2 and R3 arising anteriorly or reduced. In the three montane Bornean species and the one from Pulo Laut described last below, R1 converges on R2-4 subbasally before diverging again. Phragma lobes between the first two abdominal tergites are absent.

In the male abdomen the eighth segment is not of the framed corematous type, but the sclerites are rather short and can be bilobed. The genitalia are highly diverse in form, though usually with a broad vinculum that is often extended into a saccus.

The female genitalia frequently have the ostium set in a slight pouch or pocket. The apodemes of the eighth segment are very short, often also broad. The ductus bursae is moderate, narrow, unsclerotised. The corpus bursae is usually longer, sausage-like, narrow, often with a belt of scobination, variable in spine size, in the distal part. The ductus seminalis tapers off just subbasally from it.

The genus shows moderate diversity through the Indo-Australian tropics and subtropics, and there are probably many undescribed species, including five more from Borneo represented by single females. The five rather robust species described from Fiji by Robinson (1975), though resembling Hypenagonia in facies, have unusual male genitalia with striking processes on the tegumen. They probably represent a distinct genus endemic to the Fiji group. The next genus, definitely not a hypenine, is also separated from Hypenagonia.

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