SUBFAMILY HERMINIINAE
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Mosopia Walker

Type species: megaspila Walker, Peninsular Malaysia.

Synonym: Trotosema Butler (type species sordidum Butler, Japan).

The synonymy above was established by Owada (1992), who also (Owada, 1978, 1987) published a detailed account of the morphology of Trotosema. The species share similar brown, lightly fasciated wing facies with, in the male, raised androconial scales in the distal part of the medial zone of the forewing near the costa (Owada, 1978); the costal margin bulges slightly in that area. The androconia are far more abundant and conspicuous in the type species of Mosopia, which also has the black reniform enlarged into (or totally obscured by) a large round black patch that is enclosed by a fine white line. The labial palps of the male are considerably enlarged, the long second segment directed forwards in the type species, and the equally long third segment angled acutely back to extend over the head to engage dorsally with the head and a groove in the thorax; they are flanked by scale tufts on the head (see also Lödl (2002)). In the type species of Trotosema both the second and third segments extend back over the head and thorax, the former as long as the first segment and the latter about four times as long, contained in a groove along the dorsum of the thorax as illustrated by Owada (1978). In other Bornean species the second segment is directed more upwards from an upcurved first segment, the third segment curving down from its junction with this to engage with the dorsal part of the head and thorax, sometimes involving a hair pencil. In the female the labial palps are much smaller, upcurved, more of the unmodified herminiine type. The legs in both sexes are smoothly scaled, unmodified. The male antennae are ciliate, with a pair of long bristles on each segment. The male foreleg lacks a sheath, although M. eudoxusalis Walker has a small spine at the apex of the tibia (see also Owada, 1994: 94).

The male abdomen has the eighth segment unmodified. The genitalia have the juxta somewhat flask-shaped, with an inverted, v-shaped pleat in the basal part. The valves have a robust, somewhat setose process at the apex of the sacculus near the centre of the distal margin. There is a small spine-like extension to the costa just subapically that is straight or curves towards the apex of the valve. The aedeagus vesica has extensive general scobination, sometimes with patches of coarser spines.

The female genitalia have a rather elongate, sclerotised ductus, supported by a pair of elongated, sclerotised strips; the ostium may be slightly bilobed. The corpus bursae has a small central signum within concentric ovals of corrugation that are generally scobinate. The ductus seminalis tapers off basally or subbasally with only a slight coil to it. In the type species and kononenkoi sp. n. The bursa is set asymmetrically on the ductus. In eudoxusalis Walker, it is narrower and more symmetrically arranged, lacking a signum but having the basal half strongly scobinate.

The genus consists of the species discussed below, the N.E. Himalayan M. magniplaga Swinhoe (Lödl, 2002; also in Sumatra (Lödl, 1999e)) and the type species of Trotosema. However, it appears to be related to the mainland Asian Cidariplura Butler (Owada, 1978, 1987; Lödl, 2002) where the species are more delicate, the males lacking forewing androconia but having labial palps that extend to the anterior segments of the abdomen. The male genitalia are similar but the valves are deeper with larger costal and saccular processes. In the female, the scobinations of the corrugated area of the bursa are not so definitely concentrated into a signum centrally. Cidariplura species have a spine at the apex of the male foretibia (Owada, 1994), and there is an orbicular spot on the hindwing underside of C. brevivittalis Moore (N. India, Taiwan, Japan: Owada, pers. comm.).

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