View Image Gallery of Subfamily Herminiinae

Paracolax Hubner

Type species: Hubner Europe.

Synonym: Capnistis Warren (type species albinotata Butler, Japan); Crinisinus Bryk (type species turbo Bryk, Korea = trilinealis Bremer); Paraherminia Richards (type species derivalis).

This genus in a strict sense and Hadennia Moore (see below) share a number of features. However, several of the species listed by Poole (1989) in Paracolax probably belong amongst the Polypogon group of genera. The forewings of the males in both genera have a flap with a fringe of scales underlapping the forewing costa below over about two-thirds of its length. Such a feature is also seen in a few other genera as discussed on p. 18 and is illustrated for Japanese species by Owada in Inoue et al. (1982: plate 384). The labial palps are slender, directed forwards and usually slightly upcurved.

The male abdomen in both genera has a framed corematous eighth segment. In the genitalia, there is a spherical structure between the bases of the valves that bears numbers of deciduous hairs. This is also seen in two genera of the sixth miscellaneous sequence of genera discussed by Holloway (2005): Platyjionia Swinhoe and Leptocola Holloway (praeocc.; see p. 226). These genera lack scaling overlapping the underside of the forewing costa, and the male and female genitalia are otherwise atypical of the Herminiinae.

Hadennia is defined below on facies characters, and its recognition may well render Paracolax paraphyletic. Those Japanese species illustrated by Owada (1987) have a much greater variety of facies, with some (e.g. P. pryeri Butler) approaching that of Hadennia. Some, but not all, Hadennia have noded male antennae, but this occurs also in all except two of the five Bornean species described here in Paracolax. In both genera when present it consists of a dorsal tuft or crest of scales directed distally from somewhere in the central region of the otherwise fasciculate antenna. These Bornean species have a facies type most similar to P. fentoni Butler from Japan which lacks an antennal node. The last Bornean species treated below has strongly bipectinate male antennae and a much reduced flap of scaling under the forewing. The structure between the valve bases is present.

The male genitalia of the Bornean species generally have tongue-like valves with a slender, sometimes long, saccular process. The juxta is typical of the genus, the sides curving up to a triangular apex with the sides appearing “pinched in”. The aedeagus vesica has a field of very coarse spines amid more general scobination. In the female, there is often a signum consisting of a small spine.

The larva of the type species was described by Bretherton et al. (1983). The first pair of prolegs is absent, and the body has a velvety pubescence. The larva feeds on the dead, fallen leaves of Quercus (Fagaceae) in Britain.

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