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Anomis Hübner

Type species: exacta Hübner, S. America (Nye, 1975; but given as erosa Hübner by Poole (1989)). Adoption of erosa would place Anomis as a senior synonym of Cosmophila Boisduval (see p. 235 and Tams (1924a)).

Synonyms (generic names requiring further assessment in relation to a more restricted definition of Anomis are placed in square brackets; they are discussed in the text following): [Alabama Grote (type species argillacea Hübner, Brazil)]; Amarna Walker (type species discursa Walker, type locality not stated, probably Neotropical (Nye, 1975)); Anomus Agassiz (unjustified emendation of Anomis); Capitaria Walker (type species sublineata Walker, Honduras); Eualabama Grote (unnecessary replacement name for Alabama); [Molopa Swinhoe (type species planalis Swinhoe, Australia)]; Ristra Walker (type species tortuosa Walker, Honduras = illita Guenée); Scoedisa Walker (type species designans Walker, Brazil = picta Sepp).

Anomis as traditionally treated (e.g. Poole, 1989) is a very large genus extending throughout the tropical and warm temperate regions of the world. With related genera (but see synonymy above and note below on similarity of the male genitalia with typical Anomis) such as the monobasic Alabama Grote, it is much in need of revision. The larvae are predominantly recorded from hosts in the Malvales, and many are agricultural pests.

It has not proved possible to give a clear-cut definition of the genus as a whole, as characteristics of facies and male and female genitalia are diverse, and possibly only the facies of the forewing provides a distinctive character that is generally shared: the postmedial is strongly stepped or looped around the reniform. However, this feature is more weakly present in several other of the scoliopterygine genera treated here; in these, the fascia has a generally more sinuous and irregular course, but is always being displaced somewhat basad posterior to the reniform.

In the male abdomen, the eighth sternite is a rather flask-shaped version of the framed corematous type, the corema being single when developed and sometimes restricted to a small central area within the frame (e.g.
A. picta Sepp from S. America). The tergite is vestigial or represented by the sclerotised strip of the anterior margin; the splayed apodemes of the typical framed corematous condition are absent. A similar eighth segment is seen in Lineopalpa Guenée. In the genitalia, the scaphium is typical of the tribe and usually slightly bifid apically. The valves are always simple, their coremata large. In the type species of Anomis, the vinculum is well developed, broad, extending well below the bases of the valves, and being apically concave. The juxta is similar to that of Lineopalpa and usually supports a sclerotised anellar base. These features are seen also in the type species of Alabama, argillacea Hübner, and in picta, the type species of Scoedisa Walker; these are therefore included in the list of generic synonyms. In the female genitalia these species have a corrugate corpus bursae with no definite signum or a slight peak in the scobination, most clearly defined in Ristra Walker.

In Cosmophila Boisduval, Deinopalpus Holland and Deremma Walker, the vinculum is shorter, more tapering and more narrowly excavate. The juxta gives rise to a distal furca, and the anellar tube is strongly spined. The female has a curved spine in the bursa in Cosmophila but not in the other genera.

Rusicada Walker, the male features are similar to those of Cosmophila but more robust, the juxta and furca enlarged, and the spining of the anellar tube generally more complex. In this genus and typical Cosmophila there may be a strong cornutus or cornuti in the vesica. The vinculum is much reduced ventral to the valve bases in Rusicada and is not always excavate. The bursa in the female is corrugate, without a signum.

In Molopa Swinhoe, the anellar tube is broad and spined, but there is no furca to the juxta. The vinculum is as in Cosmophila and allies, and the aedeagus vesica contains several cornuti. In the female, the corpus bursae is constricted centrally, with the basal part more strongly corrugate and the distal part with a pair of curved spines.

Gonitis Guenée and Tiridata Walker have elongate, narrow valves that extend beyond the narrow vinculum, this having no excavation. The valve coremata are double. The anellar tube may be spined but the juxta lacks a furca, being more broadly bilobed distally, the bases of the lobes somewhat fused to the interior of the valves. The females have a somewhat pyriform corpus bursae with (Tiridata) scobination only in the narrower, more basal part: this is more intense around a slight invagination.

Anomis appears to be diverse in, perhaps restricted to, the New World. Cosmophila and allies are perhaps more typical of the Old World, diverse in Africa, but with the core group of Cosmophila (Tams, 1924) pantropical. Rusicada is restricted to the Old World, with its core group Indo-Australian. Gonitis is pantropical. Molopa is probably restricted to the Australian type species.

Of these groupings, at least
Gonitis and Rusicada appear well defined, though the latter may be nested within Cosmophila; the furca provides a synapomorphy for the two together, but there is no clear synapomorphy for a Cosmophila grouping, apart from for the core group defined by Tams (1924a) as discussed for the larvae below and on p. 235. Recognition of these groups as distinct genera may also leave the rest of Anomis paraphyletic, and there are certainly other groupings that can be defined within the residue, such as the pair albipunctula Hampson and cupienda Swinhoe discussed below, and various singleton taxa from the region.

Therefore, most of the groupings noted above are tentatively given full generic status, with the proviso that a more extensive revision may establish either a harder definition for
Anomis as a whole (perhaps bringing in other genera such as Lineopalpa) or the existence of a distinct Neotropical Anomis group. In the case of Cosmophila and Rusicada, it may prove necessary to readjust the distribution of species between the two when the African fauna has been studied in greater detail. This may result in many of the large reddish species being transferred to Rusicada in a basal position to the core group discussed here.

The segregation of the genera
Rusicada Walker, Cosmophila Boisduval and Tiridata Walker as distinct from Anomis and each other is also supported by larval characters (Gardner (1941, 1947). In Cosmophila, prolegs are absent from A3 and the crochets are appendiculate as in the Bagisarinae (discussed by Holloway, (1998)); appendiculate crochets in conjunction with absence of the prolegs on A3 are also noted in the American Anomis species texana Riley and impasta Guenée by Crumb (1956). In the other two genera and in Alabama Grote (Crumb, 1956), the only representative of what might be considered typical Anomis for which larval details have been located, prolegs are present on A3 but reduced, and the crochets are normal. All three of these genera have an additional, well developed paradorsal seta on the more anterior abdominal segment (Gardner, 1947), though this is also seen in Scoliopteryx (Crumb, 1956) and may therefore be a tribal feature.

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