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Dinumma Walker

Type species: placens Walker.

Ortheaga Walker (type species combusta Walker, Java); Paralopha Bethune-Baker (type species rubiginea Bethune-Baker, New Guinea) syn. n.

Inclusion of Dinumma in the Scoliopterygini is tentative, based on the occurrence of a distally displaced scaphium and of coremata extending to the apex of relatively simple valves in the male genitalia. The male eighth abdominal segment is possibly a modification of the framed corematous types. However, this is the only genus in the tribe where the pupa has been noted to have a bloom (see p. 23), and also the only genus that Fibiger (2003) listed with his Catocalinae rather than his Calpinae. The ovipositor lobes also have features seen in Catocalini and Catephiini.

The forewing facies is atypical, consisting usually of a slightly darker medial zone bounded sharply by irregularly and shallowly zig-zag antemedial and postmedial fasciae. Within this band there may be a dark, transverse discal dash. The marginal zone has diffuse and irregular paler fasciae, and there may be one or two dark spots immediately submarginally that have pale bluish highlights. The male antennae are ciliate. The labial palps have the third segment about half the length of the second.

In the male abdomen, the eighth segment is modified. The tergite is very much narrower than the sternite and has splayed apodemes. It may have a circular lacuna at two-thirds. The sternite is usually entire, with the distal margin bilobed and, more rarely, with a slight lacuna near the anterior margin. The genitalia have a strong scaphium that is displaced up the uncus. The valves are distally modified into a corema and have a transverse process from the base of the costa to the sacculus. The juxta is of the inverted ‘V’ type. The vinculum is not excavate distally. The aedeagus vesica is diverse in form, usually with several diverticula that may bear clusters of spines on a more dispersed array of simple ones.

The female genitalia are atypical of the tribe. The ovipositor lobes are acute, with a slightly more sclerotised band running through the centre from the base of the apophysis. A similar but more pronounced, narrower band occurs in the Catocalini (p. 38) and the Catephiini (p. 83). The ostium is set within a complex sterigma between the seventh and eighth segments that appears to extend forward from the latter. The seventh sternite is distinctly reduced relative to the tergite and somewhat trapezoidal. The ductus is short, moderate to broad, sclerotised, and the bursa is generally pyriform with some sclerotisation and fluting on its more basal part. It may be slightly scobinate more distally.

The genus is found throughout the Indo-Australian tropics to as far east as the Bismarcks, and extends north to Siberia (Poole, 1989).

The biology of the type species and one other is described below; the larva of
D. deponens Walker in Japan illustrated by Mutuura et al. (1965) resembles that illustrated for oxygrapha Snellen by Chey (1996). Other species in the genus (Sugi, 1987; Robinson et al., 2001) have been recorded from Albizia, so the genus as a whole shows some preference for Leguminosae.

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