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Pangrapta hylaxalis Walker
Egnasia hylaxalis Walker, [1859]1858, List Specimens lepid. Insects Colln Br. Mus., 16: 222.
Zethes albiguttata Pagenstecher, 1885, Jb. nassau. Ver. Naturk., 38: 40.


Pangrapta hylaxalis

Pangrapta hylaxalis Walker; Holloway, 1976: 39.

Diagnosis. This and the next species share with parsimonalis the dark brown triangular mark on the costa distal to the postmedial, but the markings are generally more untidy and the forewing reniform and orbicular are ringed or highlighted with white. The area distal to the hindwing postmedial does not have such a conspicuous dark brown ‘mountain range’, though this zone is darker and bounded distad by a more regularly dentate greenish band. See also the next species.

Taxonomic note. The species is unusual in the genus in having the phragma lobes anterior to the second abdominal tergite vestigial. The male genitalia have an uncus as in parsimonalis, but the valves are lens-shaped. The aedeagus vesica is broad, without diverticula or ornamentation (but see the related species next). The eighth segment of the abdomen appears unmodified. The female has the eighth segment densely setose. The corpus bursae is generally scobinate, with a longitudinal strip of sclerotisation with coarser scobination.

Geographical range. Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra (HS / K), Nias, Java (slide 19257).

Habitat preference. This is a common species, found in forest from the lowlands to 1930m.

Biology. Bell reared the related P. ferrugineiceps Hampson in India. The larva has the prolegs on A3 and A4 reduced relative to the rest, those on A3 slightly smaller. The shape was stated to be somewhat ‘trifine’ with A8 tumid and with the thoracic segments tapering to the distinctly but shallowly bilobed head. The head is a light translucent yellow that is marbled and reticulated with black, and with whitish lines. The body is a dirty, yellow-tinged white below, suffused darker brown above, with the primary setae arising from yellowish dots. There are obscure whitish longitudinal lines, a double one dorsally, centred pinkish. A8 has an oblique, whitish band on each side, running forwards as it descends from the dorsolateral position towards the spiracle of A7 fading as it goes. There are further white marbling and diagonal black or white lines on more anterior segments. T1 forms a black collar, with the yellow setal bases conspicuous.

The larvae live on the developing red leaves of the host plant (see
Pleurona falcata on p. 314) and are red-tinged when younger. Pupation is in a silken cell on the ground.

The host plant is Hymenodictyon (Rubiaceae) as for P. falcata.

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