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Pangrapta Hübner

Type species: decoralis Hübner, U.S.A.

Marmorinia Guenée (type species epionoides Guenée, U.S.A. = decoralis); Saraca Walker (type species disruptalis Walker, China = curtalis Walker); Stenozethes Hampson (type species obscurata Butler, Japan).

This is currently a large genus found in both the New World and the Old, but showing a diversity of morphology that calls for a general revision. Sugi & Kononenko (1996) have treated species groups in far eastern Asia. It is difficult to identify many features on which it can be defined, though some of facies and the genitalia offer promise.

The wings are generally dark brown with fine, darker fasciae and often tinges of violet or green. The wing margins are often slightly angled centrally. A few species have a darker triangle or trapezium on the forewing costa between the postmedial and submarginal. The distal margins of the wings may be angled centrally or more rounded. The male antennae are fasciculate or ciliate. The labial palps are long, slender, particularly the third segment, and upcurved.

The male abdomen has the eighth segment of the framed corematous type, though this is variable in development. In the genitalia, the uncus is generally slender, rather sinuous, including the tapering apex. The valves tend to be long, narrow, unornamented or, more typically, with a spine-like central process distally (seen in all the generic type species in the synonymy), though in some species it has a more basal position. The juxta is broad, with some semblance of an inverted ‘V’ within its structure. The aedeagus vesica typically has one or more large cornuti, often on long diverticula.

In the female genitalia, potentially generic features are an unusual density and general distribution of setae on the eighth segment (see also illustrations in Sugi & Kononenko (1996)), and one or more conspicuous areas of sclerotisation, sometimes scobinate, within the basal part of the corpus bursae. There may be a small, scobinate signum more distally. The seventh segment may have a pair of pouches near its anterior margin. The ductus seminalis arises near the base of the corpus bursae.

In the species account following, comment will be made on the extent to which the species show the potentially diagnostic genitalia features.
P. dialitha Hampson is transferred to Diomea Walker on p. 382.

The larvae of the two Pangrapta species illustrated in Sugi (1987) are rather spindle-shaped, with the two anterior pairs of prolegs reduced and the anal ones directed out posteriorly. Both are smooth, cryptically patterned (one mostly emerald green, the other a charcoal colour), and share possession of glossy black bands that run down each side of the head, diverging from proximity on the  crown, a generic feature noted by Sugi.

Miyata (1983) and Sugi recorded the larvae of Japanese species as feeding on several host families: Caprifoliaceae (Lonicera, Viburnum); Oleaceae (Fraxinus, Ligustrum); Rosaceae (Malus, Prunus, Pyrus, Sorbus); Ulmaceae (Ulmus). Robinson et al. (2001) added Rubiaceae (Breonia, Hymenodictyon, Neolamarckia) and Smilacaceae (Smilax) to this list, though the record for Smilax in fact refers to a species of Lophoruza Hampson (Acontiinae) that was transferred to Pangrapta erroneously by Poole (1989).

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