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Pandesma quenavadi Guenée
Pandesma quenavadi Guenée, 1852, Hist. nat. Insectes, Spec. gén. Lépid., 6: 438.
Pandesma jubra Swinhoe, 1889, Proc. zool. Soc. Lond., 1889: 413.

Pandesma quenavadi
(in FRC, Sepilok)

. The forewings are rather narrow, grey, with a broad, darker border. There is light and irregular fasciation basal to this, a weak reniform stigma, and a small dark spot centrally in the antemedial zone. The hindwings are white with a broad blackish grey border that is darker than the one on the forewings.

Geographical range. N.E. Himalaya, Taiwan, Burma, Thailand (VK), Japan (Inoue et al., 1982), Sumatra (HS / ZSM), Borneo, Java, Philippines, Australia (Nielsen et al., 1996).

Habitat preference. A female has been taken from the coast of Brunei at Seria, an area of coastal forest and disturbed habitats. Also, Chey (1994) recorded several specimens in secondary forest and softwood plantations at Brumas in the lowlands of Sabah.

Biology. The larva was described by Gardner (1941, 1948a). All abdominal prolegs are fully developed, with long plantae. The mandible has a complex internal armature of teeth, shared with the Polydesmini (see below), and possibly correlated with a tendency for bark-feeding. The head is rather coarsely and distinctively granulate, but the skin of the body is smooth. The head is mostly black, but with pale spots or stripes. The body has a brown-speckled, whitish dorsal line, broken by black on A1 and A2. The flanks are speckled black down to the level of the spiracles, but below this the body is paler and speckled with brown. The spiracles are black.

The larvae feed on the bark of
Acacia and Abizia (Leguminosae; also noted by Miyata (1983)), sheltering a few centimetres deep in under dead leaves or stones when not feeding. Gardner (1948a) indicated that records of the species as a defoliator may be incorrect; earlier (Gardner, 1941) he stated that the younger larvae feed on shoots. Robinson et al. (2001) add Xylia (Leguminosae) to the host list but refer to defoliation as well as bark-feeding. The reference to fruit crops from Zhang (1994) may be for adult feeding, as the other two congeners listed by Robinson et al. both have only Leguminosae as host records (Acacia, Dalbergia, Pithecellobium, Prosopis).

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