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Ophisma gravata Guenée
Ophisma gravata Guenée, 1852, Noct, 3: 237.
Grammodes pallens Lucas, 1892, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. W., (2) 7: 260.
Ophisma gravata Guenée; Kobes, 1992: 88.

Ophisma gravata

. Much smaller than its congener, gravata has browner, more uniform and more triangular (but still falcate) forewings with a distinctly straight, fine medial line. The hindwing has a similar colour and black border to pallescens, but the border diffuses more strongly to the margin.

Geographical range. Indo-Australian tropics to Okinawa, the Caroline Is. and New Guinea; E.Australia, New Caledoni (ssp. pallens).

Habitat preference. Records consist of two specimens from Brunei: dipterocarp forest at 60m in the Ulu Belait; dry heath forest on sand at 15m at Telisai. Chey (1994) also recorded two specimens from secondary and plantation forest at Brumas in the lowlands of Sabah, and there is a specimen from Bidi in lowland Sarawak and several from Samarinda in the lowlands of Kalimantan.

Biology. The larva was described by Bell (MS) as ophiusine in shape, with the prolegs on A3 lacking, the others all developed. The head is marbled purple and has yellow longitudinal bands. The body is smooth, invariably light or brownish purple, with the setae short and arising from white dots. There is a broken, indistinct, beaded, dorsal yellow band and a wavy, marbled lateral band of the same colour. A1 has a larger dorsal white dot, bordered blackish orange. The spiracles are also orange with black rims, and the ventral surface is white, marbled with orange lines and spotted with black and orange between the prolegs.

Pupation is in a cell of leaves, fastened and lined with silk. The pupa has a blue-white or grey powdery bloom.

The host plant was a riverine species of
Polygonum (Polygonaceae).

The adult has been recorded as a fruit piercer in Thailand (Bänziger, 1982).

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