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Hypopyra pudens Walker
Hypopyra pudens Walker, 1858, List Specimens lepid. Insects Colln Br. Mus., 14: 1329.
Enmonodia hypopyroides Walker, 1858, Ibid. 14: 1333, syn. n.
Hypopyra grandaeva Felder, 1874, Reise öst. Fregatte Novara, Lep: pl. 115, fig. 11.
Hypopyra persimilis Moore, 1877, Proc. zool. Soc. Lond., 1877: 608.
Enmonodia pudens Walker; Holloway, 1976: 29.
Hypopyra pudens Walker; Kobes, 1985: 29.

Hypopyra pudens

. This species and the next two are very similar and both show great variation in the extent of development of the discal black patch. Whereas pudens is a pale, somewhat pinkish brown, the other two are greyer with a pale mauve to violet tint that is frequently most conspicuous in zigzag submarginals on fore- and hindwings, tending towards lactipex Hampson in this character. The forewing antemedial in the next species makes a right-angle with the dorsum on its distal side, whereas in pudens this angle is slightly obtuse. At the costal end of the antemedial, the curvature basad occurs closer to the costa in the next two species.

Taxonomic note. Poole (1989) placed both the senior and junior homonyms of hypopyroides Walker as synonyms of vespertilio, but it is clear from the material labelled as types of these that only the junior homonym, Spirama hypopyroides Walker (1863), should have this status. Enmonodia hypopyroides Walker (1858) is a synonym of pudens as listed above. The male genitalia of pudens are very similar to those of vespertilio except the uncus is longer and the lobes on the valve sacculi are narrower, particularly on the right side. H. villicosta Prout (Philippines: Mindanao) is probably related to pudens, having similar male secondary sexual characters on the underside, but with facies more as in pallidigera except the distal margins are diffusely darker and the forewing discal spot is small and oval.

Geographical range. Japan, India, Andamans, Sundaland, Sulawesi.

Habitat preference. The species is infrequent from the lowlands, including disturbed and coastal areas, to 1618m. Chey (1994) found the species to be common in plantations of Acacia mangium and Paraserianthes falcataria in the lowlands of Sabah, perhaps indicating that the larva feeds on those trees (see below).

Biology. Robinson et al. (2001) recorded Paraserianthes falcataria (Leguminosae) as a host plant.

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