locality stated to be America, probably in error; Java, Moluccas to Queensland
(unnecessary replacement name for
Both sexes are distinguished by a large and striking ocellate
mark in the discal area of the forewing. It consists uniquely of a curved V or Y
shaped squiggle basally, brown with fine black edging and bluish highlights, and
the circumference is completed distally by a black arc, edged paler on each
side, part of the submarginal. Many species show pronounced sexual dimorphism,
the males with reduced hindwings that bear pouched androconia on the costa. Such
a feature is shared between the
group and a number
of species within
as treated by Kobes
(1985), such as
distinct from other
Guenée, hence all
are best treated under
Several species have extreme, but variable white markings in the submarginal
area, and these are often more extensive on the underside, including of males.
The male abdomen has the eighth sternite bilobed. The tergite
tapers slightly to a rounded posterior margin, and usually has robust, short,
well separated apodemes anteriorly. In the genitalia the valves are extensively
corematous, which can obscure the structure of the more rigid parts.
The female genitalia vary in the length and extent of
sclerotisation (usually a short, wider section at the ostium) of the ductus, and
the shape and development of corrugation in the corpus bursae. In
the corpus bursae is not corrugated, but finely scobinate throughout.
The genus is diverse throughout the Indo-Australian tropics to
the Solomons, and there are a few species in Africa (Poole, 1989). The
group contains a
series of allopatrically distributed species. In addition to the type species,
Hampson in Java and
the Lesser Sundas,
Snellen in Sulawesi
and the Philippines, and
Queensland and from the S. Moluccas to the Solomons.
The biology of several species is described below.
Adults of all five Bornean species have been recorded as fruit-piercers
in Thailand (Bänziger, 1982; Kuroko & Lewvanich (1993)).
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