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Eudocima Billberg

Type species: salaminia Cramer, China.

Synonyms: Acacalis Agassiz (unjustified emendation of Acacallis); Acacallis Hübner (type species procus Cramer, Surinam); Adris Moore (type species tyrannus Guenée, India); Argadesa Moore (type species materna Linnaeus, India); Corycia Hübner (type species cajeta Cramer, India, Java); Elygea Billberg (type species materna); Eumaenas Hampson (unnecessary replacement name for Maenas); Halastus Butler (type species intricatus Butler, Nigeria, Angola, Sierra Leone = divitiosa Walker); Khadira Moore (type species aurantia Moore, S. Andaman Is.); Leptophara Billberg (type species salaminia); Maenas Hübner (type species salaminia) praeocc.; Ophideres Boisduval (type species princeps Boisduval, New Guinea); Ophioderes Agassiz (unjustified emendation of Ophideres); Othreis Hübner (type species pomona Cramer (see Nye, 1975) = phalonia Linnaeus); Othryis Agassiz (unjustified emendation of Othreis); Purbia Moore (type species discrepans Walker, Singapore); Rhytia Hübner (type species cocalus Cramer, East Indies); Trissophaes Hübner (type species collusoria Cramer, Surinam); Vandana Moore (type species dividens Walker).

This genus is treated in the broad sense used by Poole (1989) and Zilli & Hogenes (2002), but more traditional generic combinations, following on from the treatment by Moore (1881), are indicated for the species below in square brackets. Eudocima, together with the Neotropical genera Ferenta Walker and Tetrisia Walker, the Oriental genus Gloriana Kirby and the Madagascan genus Huebnerius Saalmüller, form a complex of genera with large, mostly leaf-mimicking forewings and flash coloration on the hindwings. The forewings have the tornus falcate and the dorsum is also slightly sinuous, with a subbasal expansion, typical of the tribe. This wing shape is exaggerated in Tetrisia, normal in Eudocima, but absent from the other three genera. Tetrisia also shares with Eudocima yellow flash coloration on the hindwings; however, this is similar to that of much smaller species in the large Neotropical genus Gonodonta Hübner that also shares the forewing shape. In Eudocima this yellow is usually broken by a black border over much of the anterior-part of the wing, with a large black lunule (sometimes absent or reduced to one or more spots) set submarginally in the remaining spaces; indeed this offers an easily recognisable definitive feature for the genus. The modification of the distal part of the adult tongue as an adaptation for the fruit piercing habit was discussed on p. 10.

The male abdomen has an eighth segment of the framed corematous type. The genitalia have a short, robust uncus with a slight scaphium. The tegumen is generally longer than the vinculum. The valves are robust, variably irregular in shape, the margins generally more heavily sclerotised than a central lacuna, but usually without distinct processes from the costa or sacculus. The juxta is slightly divided centrally, with a slight notch or weakness ventrally and a stronger dorsal division where it is usually distinctly bifid, the arms of the bifurcation sometimes very long, eg. in
cocalus and phalonia. In some species, such as sikhimensis Butler, the dorsal arms are strongly spined. The aedeagus is usually broad, often scobinate apically. The diverticula of the vesica are generally short, broad, and may bear a variety of cornuti or clusters of smaller spines, the latter often extensive.

The female genitalia have the ostium within a broad sterigma associated with the eighth segment, though this structure is partially overlapped by the seventh sternite; this is only slightly reduced. The apodemes of the eighth segment are often small, and may be vestigial or lost. The ductus is usually broad, sclerotised, often longitudinally corrugated. These corrugations may extend into the corpus bursae, which tends to be elongate and rather irregular in shape.

The larvae known across the genus are also very uniform in structure, ornamentation and behaviour. The prolegs on A3 are strongly reduced, replaced by a ventral tumidity. Those on A4 are slightly reduced. A8 rises to a hump at its posterior-margin and falls steeply beyond that to the anal prolegs so that it appears virtually right-angled in profile. There are conspicuous and large subdorsal ocellate marks on A2 and A3. These provide a focus for a threat posture that the larva adopts at rest, with the portion anterior to the fully functional prolegs lifted upwards and curled round so that the ocelli are prominently displayed; the posterior section with the hump and anal prolegs is also held up away from the substrate.

There are numerous illustrations and descriptions of the larvae of several species, but these are not always entirely consistent, and so an attempt has been made here to derive a consensus account, albeit sometimes at the sacrifice of detail. Bell (MS) attempted a key for the Indian species he encountered that was based primarily on the colour of the spiracles: black (
aurantia, homaena Hübner); reddish brown or orange (materna, phalonia); olive green with brown (hypermnestra Stoll); some of these species and others were illustrated by Moore (1881).

Host plants are predominantly vines and lianes in the family Menispermaceae (Bänziger, 1982; Robinson et al., 2001), but there are records also from the related family Lardizabalaceae (see also Bänziger, 1989b), and from Amaranthaceae, Berberidaceae (Sugi, 1987) and Sterculiaceae. In the Pacific islands the most serious fruit-piercing pest of the genus, E. phalonia, has adopted Erythrina (Leguminosae) as a host; this tree is frequently planted to shade other crops such as coffee, and thus the damage to fruit crops by this species may be enhanced (Comstock, 1966; Cochereau, 1974; Maddison, 1982). Host plants in the Menispermaceae have been recorded from the following genera: Anamirta, Cissampelos, Cocculus, Cyclea, Diploclisia, Fibraurea, Legnephora, Menispermum, Rhigiocarya, Sinomenium, Stephania, Tiliacora and Tinospora (Tanahara & Tanahara, 2000; Robinson et al., 2001); and those in Lardizabalaceae from: Akebia, Holboellia, Parvatia and Stauntonia (Robinson et al.; Sugi, 1987; Bänziger, 1989b). Records from other plant families in the literature (e.g. Zhang, 1994) are probably derived from observations of fruit-piercing by adults that have been subsumed as larval host records (Robinson et al., 2001), though Moore (1881) noted phalonia from Leschenaultia (Goodeniaceae).

Pupation is always in a roomy cell made of living leaves woven together with silk and slightly lined; the pupa is attached to this lining by the cremaster.

The adults of all species probably pierce fruit as adults, and
E. phalonia is a serious pest in this regard as discussed below. Eight species have been recorded to do this in Thailand (Bänziger, 1982; Kuroko & Lewvanich, 1993), and six of these (salaminia, discrepans, aurantia, phalonia, the cajeta group and homaena) are known from Borneo.

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