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Plecoptera Guenée

Type species: reflexa Guenée, India.

Synonyms: Biregula Saalmüller (type species recens Saalmüller, Madagascar); Carteia Walker (type species nebulilinea Walker, Borneo); Plecopteroides Strand (type species chalciope Strand, [Zaïre] Congo).

This genus is tentatively associated with the Anobini, though it lacks some of the features used to define the tribe on p. 275 such as, on the forewing, irregular markings and a tuft of scales on the dorsum. Many species are characterised by a straight, transverse forewing postmedial, and sometimes a straight antemedial, but not by irregular blocks of dark colour, though sometimes the reniform is darkened or there are small dark triangles antemedially or postmedially on the costa. The hindwings can have a diffusely darker border, often edged anteriorly by a narrower dark fascia over the posterior half. The male antennae are fasciculate, sometimes biserrate. The third segment of the labial palps is much shorter than the second, a feature seen in the other Anobini genera.

The male abdomen is of the framed corematous type, though the apodemes of the tergite are straight and well separated. The male genitalia have uncus variability similar to that in other Anobini, including species with a strong dorsal process (e.g.
recta Pagenstecher). The juxta is also very variable in form, being an inverted ‘V’ in recens but a broad, rugose, bi-umbonate, circular plate in recta. The valves have the margins more heavily sclerotised than the centre, but not to such an extent as in other genera, and there is often a process such as a digitate spine at the distal end of the central lacuna. The aedeagus vesica is broad, convolute, but cornuti are only sometimes present.

The female genitalia have the seventh sternite reduced; the ostium is situated usually between its apex, the corners of the tergite and the eighth segment, but sometimes is more closely associated with the last. The ductus is usually short, broad but the corpus bursae can have a long, sclerotised neck with fluting (e.g.
reflexa). In recta the ductus is longer, broad, sclerotised, tapering to a narrow junction with the corpus bursae, also partly sclerotised. The corpus bursae is variable in size and shape, sometimes irregular, rarely ornamented.

Gardner (1941, 1947) and Bell (MS) reared the larva of
reflexa in India. It is cylindrical, with the prolegs on A3 absent and those on A4 rudimentary. The head is yellowish green with rather long setae. The body is light green with three white lines on each side between the dorsum and the spiracles, the ground between these lines marbled yellowish. There is a broad yellow-green band through the spiracles, bounded below by a subspiracular white line. Each spiracle has a purple blotch just above it on the supraspiracular white line, and these blotches coalesce into a band in places. The ventral surface is an unmarked darker green.

The eggs are laid beneath leaves, many on the same plant, sometimes in batches. The larvae lie fully stretched at all times. The larva usually descends to the ground to pupate in a slight but well woven cell or cocoon, covered with fragments of soil or detritus.

The larva of
recta was considered by Bell (MS) to resemble that of Crithote (see below and p. 279).

The host plants recorded by Gardner and Bell were
Dalbergia and Pterocarpus (Leguminosae); Robinson et al. (2001) listed several records on these hosts, but also noted grass (Gramineae) and Populus (Salicaceae), both unusual for the genus. However, it is evident from the records in New Guinea for P. violacea Pagenstecher (see below) that, whilst most feeding is on Leguminosae, hosts from other families are exploited on rare occasions.

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