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Penicillaria Guenée

Type species: nugatrix Guenée.

Synonyms: Bombotelia Hampson; Tamseale Nye (replacement name for Eleale Walker, a junior homonym) syn. n. (type species is plusioides Walker); Tibiocillaria Bethune-Baker syn. n.

The forewings have a margin with an obtuse central angle and are distinctively patterned in purplish red with strongly angled fasciae in most species; the submarginal is subapically prominent as a fine white line. The hindwings are basally white with a broad border of a slightly duller shade of the forewing colour.

The male antennae are bipectinate over the basal half to two-thirds, those of the female filiform in the nugatrix Guenée group (see below) but almost as bipectinate as in the male in plusioides, maculata and the two species previously placed in Tibiocillaria; they are less markedly bipectinate in females of dorsipuncta Hampson and lineatrix Walker (S. India, Sri Lanka).

The male eighth abdominal segment has a pair of coremata arising basally from the sternite; the tergite basally bears two anterior processes and
distally has two small, lateral, setose, membraneous lobes (Fig. 25). In the genitalia the valves are simple and the saccus very broad, relatively short; the valves bear an ampullate harpe and are relatively expanded at the apex in the simplex group, and somewhat so in jocosatrix; in other species the valves are of even width.

The uncus is narrow with a terminal spine in maculata and the sister-pair of species included in Tibiocillaria, dinawa Bethune-Baker (New Guinea) and magnifica Robinson (Fiji), both here placed in Penicillaria combs. n. In plusioides Walker and dorsipuncta Hampson it tapers to a point from a relatively broad base. In P. lineatrix Walker the uncus has a bifid apical portion, each part bearing serried ranks of cylindrical setae as illustrated for the Australasian Pataeta carbo Guenée by Holloway (1979, fig. 107:1); the sharing of this unusual character suggests that carbo may be a divergent member of the Penicillaria group.

The generic type species P. nugatrix Guenée, P. jocosatrix and the P. simplex group all have a short, broad, setose uncus with a blunt apex, unusual in the subfamily and probably serving to define the species as a nugatrix group within which simplex and allies form a subgroup. The simplex subgroup is most diverse in the Papuan Subregion, apart from the widespread species simplex and meeki Bethune-Baker. Other species included are: dinawa Bethune-Baker, dinawaensis Bethune-Baker, nigriplaga Warren (all New Guinea); auriplaga Bethune-Baker + rothschildi Warren (possibly conspecific; New Guinea and Sulawesi).

The aedeagus vesica is globular in most species except jocosatrix where there are several narrow lobes (Holloway 1979: fig. 197), and the anellus is finely and densely setose. The vesica bears between one and a dozen substantial cornuti.

The female bursa copulatrix is unadorned.

The genus Zobia Saalmuller (type species snelleni Saalmuller; Madagascar, Africa) has features of facies and male genitalia that suggest affinities with Penicillaria.

P. plusioides has a close ally, regalis Prout, described from Amboina (S. Moluccas) which must also be transferred to Penicillaria, comb. n.

The Australian taxon plumbea Walker was incorrectly assigned to Penicillaria (under its synonym Bombotelia) by Gaede (1937) and has characters of the male antennae and genitalia that indicate it should be transferred to Targalla Walker (q.v.), comb. n.

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