Trisuloides Moore

Type species: sericea Butler (see below).

Synonyms: Disepholcia Prout, Tambana Moore and Xanthomantis Warren were treated as synonyms of Trisuloides by Poole (1989), but all three are given full generic status in Kononenko & Pinratana (2005).

      This genus was referred to in some detail by Holloway (1985: 301-2) when describing the genera Anepholcia Prout & Talbot and Antitrisuloides Holloway. The general facies and other external features are as discussed then and illustrated here. The type species is represented in Borneo and is discussed below. Its internal features are detailed in the paragraphs following.

      In the male abdomen, the eighth segment is unmodified. The genitalia have the uncus short, robust, apically hooked; it is broadly based on the tegumen. The valves do not extend much beyond the tegumen. The sacculus is broad, terminating in a straight, saw-like harpe, serrate on its dorsal edge, that extends to or just beyond the apex of the tongue-like cucullus. There is a short, narrow saccus. The aedeagus is ringed with short teeth apically and has an ovate, somewhat corrugate and locally scobinate vesica.

      The female of the type species has the ostium within the eighth segment, flanked on each side by shallow pockets. The apodemes of the eighth segment are short. The ductus bursae is short, slightly sclerotised, narrowing to the point of junction with the elongate corpus bursae; there is a small, hooked appendix bursae at this point as illustrated.

      Poole (1989) listed nineteen species (excluding Antitrisuloides) from the Himalayan region, China and eastern Asia. The type species has close relatives in the Moluccas (see below), and T. papuensis Warren (New Guinea) is the most easterly representative. A brief, but now largely outdated revision was provided by Prout & Talbot (1924).

      Most host records are from Quercus (Fagaceae) but Poole listed one Indian species (variegata Moore) as feeding on Ficus (Moraceae). However, variegata is the type species of Tambana Moore, a genus regarded as distinct by Holloway (1985: 300) and Kononenko & Pinratana (2005), and it is possible also that records of Trisula variegata (see above) have become confused (see also Robinson et al., 2001).

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