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Callopistria Hubner

Type species: juventina Stoll, Europe.

Synonyms: Lagopus R.L. (praeocc, type species juventina); Eriopus Treitschke (replacement name for Lagopus); Agabra Walker (type species trilineata Walker); Obana Walker (praeocc, type species pulchrilinea Walker); Data Walker (type species thalpophiloides Walker) syn. n.; Cotanda Moore (type species placodoides Guenee); Methorasa Moore (type species latreillei Duponchel, Europe); Euherrichia Grote (replacement for Herrichia Grote, praeocc, type species monetifera Guenee, N. America); Dissolophus Butler (type species chloriza Guenee, Java); Gnamptocera Butler (type species minuta Butler, India); Haploolophus Butler (type species mollissima Guenee, U.S.A.); Hemipachycera Butler (type species rivularis Walker); Hyperdasys Butler (type species exotica Guenee); Rhopotrichla Butler (type species recurvata Moore, India); Platydasys Butler (type species pryeri Butler); Lasiosceles Bethune-Baker (type species pratti Bethune-Baker, New Guinea) syn. n.; Miropalpa Berio (type species pauliani Berio, Madagascar); Mosara Walker (type species apicalis Walker) syn. n.

This is a very large genus found worldwide. It can be clearly defined on a number of characters, and the species can be grouped within it fairly readily on others. A few taxa are grouped with it on weaker grounds, such as general facies.

The forewings are angled centrally at the margin, though this angle can be weak or secondarily absent. The tornus is usually somewhat falcate, an effect heightened often by lengthened fringe scales. Most taxa have a white submarginal that is distinctively broken into oblique segments, often with a stronger one at the marginal angle. The reniform and orbicular are often pronounced, elongated and set obliquely to each other. Trifine basal hair pencils are present but weak.

Two species, particularly C. albistriga Walker, show some or all these features but lack the more obviously apomorphic features exhibited by the majority of taxa. They retain a harpe on the valve of the male genitalia and have a normal uncus. The second species, C. concinna Prout, has the tegumen laterally expanded as in Eulepa Walker and Stenopterygia Hampson, having the harpe set relatively basally as in the latter (though differing considerably from it in facies). The aedeagus shaft is unmodified.

In all other species the harpe is lost and the uncus is more or less swollen, with a terminal hook. C. apicalis Walker has these features but lacks two strong apomorphies that embrace the remaining taxa: sclerotisation of the basal half of the aedeagus restricted to a narrow ventral strip before extending round the shaft in the ring at two-thirds; a ballooning of the tegumen, with long scales arising from prominent but widely dispersed setal bases.

The genus can then be split into two major groups, one, subgenus Data Walker, with the base of the sacculus expanded but not divided, though distinctively finely folded around the margin where arises a clump of fine hair-scales. Bornean taxa included are C. obliterata Warren, and the pairs C. callopistrioides Moore and C. thalpophiloides Walker (united by forewing facies and yellow bases to the hindwings, seen to some extent also in obliterata), and C. manta Swinhoe and C. variegata Swinhoe.

The remainder, subgenus Callopistria, is defined by a narrow zone of long setae posterior to the lateral rods of the male eighth sternite. C. alfredi sp. n., C. quadrinotata Walker and C. guttulalis Hampson fall into this group but lack the next apomorphy.

Most taxa of subgenus Callopistria have the sacculus of the valve divided basally exteriorly. This character groups together two subgroups with the taxa C. repleta Walker and C. ludovici Prout.

One subgroup includes three Bornean species, C. emiliusalis Walker, C. ventralis Walker and C. albipunctalis sp. n. These show common facies features together with elongated lateral rods to the male eighth sternite and greater development of the associated setose zones, particularly at the distal end.

The other subgroup is defined by a character of the male antennae and includes the type species, juventina Stoll. The basal sector is broadened and ends in a node at about one third with a slight angle and some denser scaling, before continuing as the more flexible distal flagellum.

This 'nodal antenna' subgroup can be subdivided further. One species group is characterised by the presence of apically hooked, blade-like structures at the antennal node. It includes a robust sister-pair (C. wallacei Felder, C. scriptiplena Walker) that share features of facies and an elongate aedeagus vesica with an apical cornutus, and C. maillardi Guenee, a widespread species that forms a group with a large number of S.W. Pacific and Polynesian endemics (Holloway, 1983a).

A second group is characterised by an aedeagus vesica that is small but has a tongue-like sclerotisation. This group includes C. rivularis Walker, C. exotica Guenee and two species that have a pair of spinose bosses on sternite 8, C. placodoides Guenee and C. trilineata Walker.

The final group consists of a pair of species, C. pulchrilinea Walker and C. montana Holloway, with the spinose zone associated with the lateral rods broadened and with a small, globular aedeagus vesica with a mass of large cornuti.

The female genitalia show no modification at generic level, though may have features specific to certain groups. A full survey has not been under  taken. The bursa lacks signa but is generally scobinate. Species with an elongate aedeagus vesica tend also to have a well-developed appendix bursae.

The larva is a typical smooth trifine shape, with primary setae only. A variety of colour patterns has been described.

The host-plants recorded are invariably ferns. In the Oriental and Australian regions the following genera of fern have been noted (Sevastopulo, 1941a, 1947; Viette, 1962; Pholboon, 1965; Robinson, 1975; McFarland, 1979; Miyata, 1983; Sugi, 1987; Bell, MS): Adiantum, Ceterach, Davallia. Dennstaedtia, Histiopteris, Lemmaphyllum, Lygodium, Matteuccia, Nephrolepis, Pellaea, Phyllitis, Pteridium, Pteris, Selaginella, (a club-moss) Thelypteris. The number of families is also large: Adiantaceae, Aspleniaceae, Davalliaceae, Dennstaedtiaceae, Nephrolepidaceae, Polypodiaceae, Schizaeaceae, Selaginellaceae, Thelypteridaceae.

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