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Hyposidra Guenée

Type species: janiaria Guenée (Java, Sulawesi, Lesser Sundas, Australia).

Synonyms: Lagyra Walker (type species talaca Walker); Chizala Walker (type species decipiens Walker = talaca); Kalabana Moore (type species picaria Moore).

Species in this genus are mostly characterised by falcate forewings and strong sexual dimorphism: the female is much larger, with a much more crenulate margin to the wings. Fasciation is usually only weakly and diffusely defined, though it is crisp and linear in H. infixaria Walker and relatives. The male antennae are bipectinate, the forewing with a small fovea; most species lack a setal comb on sternite 3, though it is present in H. talaca.

In the male genitalia the uncus is tapering, simple, the gnathus strong with a pitted apical lobe. The valves are narrow, with a weak costal cucullus. The saccular margin is also somewhat sclerotised and setose along its length, sometimes more densely towards the distal end. The aedeagus vesica is tubular, scobinate, usually with a single, distal, reflexed cornutus: this is lacking in H. aquilaria Walker and H. incomptaria Walker, and in H. infixaria and allies there is a patch of sclerotisation, v-shaped or linear. These two groups also contain taxa with flaps or processes arising from the centre of the valve near the base, and also with elongate setae arising from the dorsal surface of the tegumen. In the infixaria group occur taxa with a short, spined furca associated with the juxta, which is otherwise a simple plate in most species.

The female genitalia are strongly modified with the ovipositor and its apodemes extremely long, telescopic. The eighth segment and its apodemes are somewhat extended, the tergite only being sclerotised. The ostium arises, often as an expanded pouch, at the distal margin of the seventh sternite. The ductus is short. The bursa expands gently to its distal bulb that contains a signum of variable shape, usually irregularly dentate around the margin of a sclerotised plate, but large, bicornute in the type species.

The larvae of several species are described below. They have in common a twig-like appearance and transverse rows of white dots. Some species exhibit a high degree of polyphagy.

The genus is most diverse in the Indo-Australian tropics but has a few taxa in Africa, where its relationship to Exeliopsis Prout and allies (see next genus) requires investigation.

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