Type species: umbrosaria Hübner, N. America.
Synonyms: Boarmia Treitschke (type species roboraria
Denis & Schiffermüller, Palaearctic); Dryocoetis Hübner (type
species roboraria); Serraca Moore (type species transcissa Walker);
Astacuda Moore (type species cineracea Moore); Pseudangerona Moore
(type species separata Walker); Maidania Swinhoe (type species tetragonata
Walker) syn. n.; Pseudoboarmia MacDunnough (type species umbrosaria
The concept of this genus has recently been refined,
with identification of Oriental species, by Sato (1984a, 1988, 1990b, 1991). Maidania
Swinhoe falls within this concept (see account of the type species, below).
The male genitalia are distinguished by several features. The tegumen
usually terminates dorsally in a pair of slender, curved processes that bear a
brush of setae apically. In some species these are reduced to small lobes (e.g. H.
glochinophora Prout) and in a few they are absent. The valves usually bear
two bands with short, robust setae, usually set opposite each other in the
centre of the valve, one subcostally and one a distal extension of the sacculus.
The juxta is basally broad, then sharply constricted between the basal zone and
the anellus. The aedeagus is short, terminating in one or two elongate, narrow,
densely but shortly spined processes. The vesica is short, tubular, often
scobinate, more rarely with a lobe or patch with short spines.
In the female genitalia the ductus is short, the bursa rather narrow,
elongate, parallel-sided, with basal scobination and a weak distal signum of two
sclerotised teeth linked by a short bar, or no signum. The ovipositor lobes and
eighth segment vary from normal to elongate, telescopic (Maidania).
Sato (1984a) mentioned the following larval features: the body skin is
granulate; there is a large tubercle present posteroventrad of seta D1 on A2;
most body setae are truncate apically in many species; seta L1 on A6-8 is fine,
slender. The larvae are twig-like in appearance, mottled grey and brown.
The larvae are arboreal feeders, highly polyphagous in many species,
recorded from both conifer and angiosperm families.
The genus is Holarctic to tropical, with extensive representation in the
Oriental Region, featuring in both lowland and montane habitats.
to Contents page