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Cleora Curtis

Type species: cinctaria Denis & Schiffermüller, Palaearctic.

Synonyms: Aegitrichus Butler (type species lanaris Butler, Fiji); Barsine Meyrick (praeocc., replaced by Meyrickia Butler, type species panagrata Walker, New Zealand); Carecomotis Warren (type species perfumosa Warren, Queensland); Cerotricha Guenée (type species licornaria Guenée, Tahiti); Chogada Moore (type species alienaria Walker); Neocleora Janse (type species tulbaghata Felder, S. Africa).

This genus has been the focus of several intensive studies, addressing major species groups or faunas within it (Prout, 1929b, 1937; Fletcher, 1953, 1967; Robinson, 1971; Sato, 1989). It is diverse throughout the Old World tropics and extends weakly into temperate latitudes and to N. America. It is well represented on Pacific islands, and the diverse endemic Hawaiian genus Scotorythra is probably closely related (Zimmerman, 1953; Fletcher, 1967), but the males lack a forewing fovea and have reduced ornamentation of the valve sacculus.

The relationships of Cleora to boarmiine genera with similar external appearance are discussed by Fletcher (1967). There is a prominent fovea on the male forewing, and the antennae are strongly bipectinate over the basal half to two thirds, quadripectinate in some species (D. Stüning, in litt.). The genitalia are distinguished by strong ornamentation on the sacculus, usually between one to three robust spines or other sclerotised processes. The aedeagus vesica is bifurcate, each arm bearing cornuti that are often very large.

In the female the ovipositor lobes are elongate, slender as in Scotorythra and related genera such as Ascotis Hübner and Cusiala Moore. Ectropis Hübner (discussed next) also has extended ovipositor lobes (Sato, 1984a). The bursa copulatrix is also long, extensively sclerotised and fluted over a long basal section, usually with a typical ennomine signum in the distal bulb.

In the larvae of some species, Sato (1984a) noted a large tubercle present posteroventrad of seta D1 on each side of A2 (See C. alienaria Walker and an illustration in Sugi (1987)). Most are probably polyphagous defoliators of trees, and Cleora species have been recorded in large numbers from plantations of leguminous softwood trees in Sabah (Chey, Speight & Holloway, 1993). Two (C. alienaria Walker, C. decisaria Walker) have been reared from one of these plantation trees, Paraserianthes falcataria, so the genus may have pest potential.

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