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Xerodes Guenée

Type species: ypsaria Guenée

Synonyms: Zethenia Motschoulsky (type species rufescentaria Motschoulsky, Japan) syn. n.; Gyadroma Swinhoe (type species testacearia Moore); Zygoctenia Warren (type species cinerosa Warren, Adonara).

The concept of Xerodes is broadened here to include the eastern Palaearctic genus Zethenia and Bornean taxa associated with Paradarisa Warren in the BMNH collection. All have generally similar brown or grey-brown facies mostly with punctate postmedials and angles to the wing margins in the median vein zone. The male antennae are fasciculate, strongly so in typical Xerodes. There is a well-developed, shallow, triangular fovea.

Features of the male and female abdomen serve to define the genus and suggest a relationship to Paradarisa. In the male, sternite 2 is distally bilobed, bearing tufts of hair scales, a feature most strongly developed in typical Xerodes but also seen in Paradarisa. Typical Xerodes has eversible pockets laterally between segments 4 and 5. The setal comb on sternite 3 is broad with the sclerotisation of the sternite obtusely constricted on either side of it. In the genitalia the distal margin of the tegumen is bilobed and tufted with hair-scales. The gnathus is apically broad, rugose. The transtillae are ring-like to triangular in appearance (weak in X. lignicolor and allies). The valve lacks a strong cucullus but may have a process or spur distal to the sacculus on the ventral margin. In Paradarisa there is a central spined process as well as saccular projections. The juxta bears a few enlarged setae on each side, a pair of extremely enlarged ones in typical Xerodes. The aedeagus vesica has a single large distal cornutus (a cluster of spines in Paradarisa).

In the female genitalia the ovipositor lobes and apodemes are elongate, the apodemes of segment 8 much shorter. The ductus is short, sclerotised, laterally scrolled. The neck of the bursa is long, sclerotised and fluted, expanding horn-like into the distal bulb where the signum is a coarsely spined disc, lacking a mushroom stalk base.

Sugi (1987) illustrates the larvae of Japanese Zethenia. They are elongate, with fine but irregular linear markings of a cryptic nature. The back of the abdominal zone terminates in two small, dark tubercles made more conspicuous by pale patches just anterior to them. Of the two Japanese species discussed, one is polyphagous, the other restricted to conifers.

The Bornean species are all montane.

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