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Barsine Walker Gen. rev.

Type species defecta Walker, Nepal.

Synonyms: Ammatho Walker (type species cuneonotatus Walker, Sri Lanka); Castabala Walker (type species roseata Walker, India); Korawa Moore (type species pallida Moore, India = perpallida Hampson); Mahavira Moore (type species flavicollis Moore, India).

This genus is revived for many of the robust species previously placed in Miltochrista Hübner. The most consistent diagnostic feature is the presence of a field or fields of large but short, asymmetric or otherwise irregular spines in the aedeagus vesica. A spur from the centre of the valve costa, usually ventrally directed, is always present. Distal costal and saccular processes are also frequently present, the former particularly so. Apart from Ammatho, the type species of the genus-group names in the synonymy have a distinctive and prominent spine from more basally on the sacculus. On all Bornean species with this, the distal saccular process is bifid, a feature of the type species of Barsine. Many of the species are mainly red or have red markings on the forewings. The venation is shown in Fig 4c. The female genitalia have only fine scobination in the bursa, sometimes partly concentrated into a signum-like structure (Mahavira)

Fig. 4c: Barsine gratiosa Guerin

Typical Miltochrista (type species rubicunda [Denis & Schiffermüller] = miniata Forster; syn. Calligenia Duponchel, type species rosea Fabricius = miniata; Europe) has large, well separated cornuti in the vesica, lacks a central costal process on the valve and has extensive fields of long spines in the bursa copulatrix.

In the Australian tropics there flies a diverse assemblage of robust species with more rectangular forewings having a more finely reticulate pattern. These species have a field of more regular, smaller spines in the vesica, a strong central costal process on the valve, but the distal costal process is absent. This group is probably more closely related to Barsine than to Lyclene (e.g. in synonymy in Nielsen et al.(1996)). The oldest available generic name is Cyme Felder (type species reticulata Felder, Ambon) Gen. rev., with Prinasura Hampson (type species pyrrhopsamma Hampson = structa Walker; syn. Pallene Walker praeocc., type species structa Walker; Australia) as a probable synonym.

Somewhat similar to Cyme is Nepita Moore (= Pitane Walker praeocc., type species conferta Walker, Sri Lanka) Gen. rev., a monobasic genus with a vesica as in Cyme but rather ovate valves ornamented only with a robust central costal process. The female genitalia have the bursa immaculate apart from a small, lens-shaped patch of scobination. The larva has secondary setae on verrucae and feeds on moss and lichen (T.R.D. Bell, MS). The cylindrical eggs are laid in batches or sheets, covered with abdominal hair, usually on stones or tree bark.

The Bornean species included in the section following show progressive divergence from the strict definition of Barsine, and some probably should be assigned to other, possibly new genera. Comments on this will be made in the taxonomic notes for each. The first four species are typical of Barsine.

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