TRIBE NUDARIINI
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Cyana inconclusa Walker
   
Bizone inconclusa Walker, 1862, J. Linn. Soc. (Zool.), 6:120.
   
Chionaema amelaena Hampson, 1903, Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (7), 11: 346, syn. n.
   
Chionaema rufistigma Rothschild, 1912, Novit. zool., 19: 245, syn. n.
   
Chionaema inconclusa ab. nexilis Draudt, 1914, Gross -Schmett. Erde, 10:175.
   
Cyana rafflesiana Roepke, [1946a]: Tijdschr. Ent. 87: 31, syn. n.
   
Chionaema rufistigma Rothschild; Holloway, 1976: 3.


Cyana inconclusa
(approx. lifesize)


Cyana inconclusa
(approx. lifesize)


Diagnosis.
Both sexes have ochreous yellow, orange or orange-red fasciae that lack black edging, but the male has the double discal spot and red wedge characteristic of many of the previous species. The fasciae are narrower than in selangorica, the only other species of this type that lacks black edging, and the marginal red band has a distinctly dentate inner border. Distinctive features of the genitalia are discussed in the next section.

Taxonomic note. The taxa brought into synonymy all have similar male and female genitalia. Sumatran species have narrower, redder fasciae, and some Bornean species tend towards this (e.g. the holotype of rufistigma). Males are distinguished by a subbasal spur to the dorsal half of the valve, directed basad, and an angle to the centre of the ventral margin. The female abdomen is extensively pilose ventrally from the sixth segment to the eighth.

Geographical range. Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia, Thailand; Sumatra (ssp. rafflesiana).

Habitat preference. The species is relatively rare, taken in alluvial and limestone forest in the lowlands during the Mulu survey, and in coastal and heath forest in Brunei. A single specimen was taken at 1200m near Bundu Tuhan on G. Kinabalu. There are two further specimens from Kinabalu, and the holotype of rufistigma was taken on G. Marapok.

Biology. An unpublished record at FRIM of the larva defoliating Dyera (Apocynaceae) needs confirmation.

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