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Cyana effracta Walker  
Barsine effracta Walker, 1854, List Specimens lepid. Insects Colln Br. Mus., 2: 546.
Chionaema pusilla Wileman, 1910, Entomologist, 43: 177.
Chionaema effracta sumatrana van Eecke, 1927, Zool. Meded. Leiden, 10:104.

Cyana effracta
(approx. lifesize)

Diagnosis. This species differs markedly from other Cyana in having a slightly translucent appearance, the forewings with three pale red fasciae more evenly spaced across the central part of the wing, with a treble stigma discally, a stigma between the medial and antemedial, a basal patch, three rather elliptical submarginal patches reminiscent of those in Adites Moore (see Adites Moore), and some small marginal flecks. The hindwings are white but with diffuse grey subbasal and submarginal bands and a discal spot. These hindwing markings are usually much more weakly expressed than in the illustrated specimen.

Taxonomic note. Despite the rather unusual facies, shared by the greyer C. pellucida Rothschild (Java), there is a double pad of scales associated with the forewing costa of the male. The genitalia are somewhat atypical, the valve of the male being barely divided, with two angular processes on the ventral margin towards the apex (weaker in a Himalayan male dissected), and the female having prominent fields of long spines as well as a signum in the bursa.

Geographical range. Nepal, N.E. Himalaya, Taiwan, Burma, Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra, Borneo.

Habitat preference. There is a specimen in USNM (illustrated) from 1530m, 1km south of Kundasang on the slopes of G. Kinabalu. The species may favour disturbed, open areas at such altitudes.

Biology. Unpublished IIE records have the host as Elettaria (Zingiberaceae), but no indication of actual ingestion of higher plant tissue.

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