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Aemene Walker Gen. rev.

Type species: taprobanis Walker, Sri Lanka.

Synonyms: Autoceras Felder (type species grammophora Felder, Sri Lanka = taprobanis); Hyposiccia Hampson (type species amnaea Swinhoe, Assam), syn. n.; Panassa Walker (type species cingalesa Walker, Sri Lanka = taprobanis); Parasiccia Hampson (type species maculifascia Moore, India) syn. n.

Species in this genus have forewings with white or grey ground crossed by numerous dark, punctate fasciae, including particularly a double postmedial one that circumnavigates the more distal black discal dot; there is usually a second dot more basally in the cell. There are also straighter subbasal, antemedial and submarginal fasciae. The genus-group names brought into synonymy share distinctive genitalic features but vary in wing venation. These genitalic features distinguish all from typical Siccia Walker (type species caffra Walker, Southern Africa). All forewing veins are present, the radial sector with a branching system ((R3, R4) R5) in Hyposiccia and Parasiccia and (R3 (R4, R5)) in typical Aemene from the costal angle of the cell (Fig 4g). R1 can anastomose with Sc (typical Hyposiccia) or remain independent (Aemene, Parasiccia). In the hindwing, M2 is lost in Aemene but is present in the type species of Hyposiccia and Parasiccia. The male antennae can be bipectinate, serrate or ciliate.

Fig 4g: Aemene taprobanis Walker

Type species: taprobanis Walker, Sri Lanka.

The male genitalia have a slender suprascaphial sclerotisation that is as long as the slender uncus and apically slightly rugose. The lateral parts of the tegumen and vinculum join conspicuously in the same twisted, lateral manner as in the Garudinia group of genera and Macaduma and allies. The valves have a saccular process and often a spine or spines from the costal margin, sometimes towards the valve apex. The aedeagus vesica is globular or bilobed, and bears a variety of scobination or spining.

The female genitalia have conspicuous, pocket-like structures flanking the ostium (Fig 336; maculifascia). The ductus is short, the bursa rather elongate, pyriform, sometimes centrally constricted, with two scobinate signa in the distal part; the ductus seminalis arises from the junction of the bursa with the ductus. There is a corethrogyne.

The genus is entirely Oriental, most diverse in the Himalaya and China, and extending north into temperate latitudes. Possibly some more current Siccia species will prove to belong here too on genitalic characters, but the forewing in Siccia has branching (R3 (R4, R5)), and vein M2 is absent from the hindwing as in typical Aemene. The genitalic features are also different, though the scaphial structure and, to a much lesser extent, the vinculum loop are present; there is general spining in the female, rather than a pair of signa.

A. taprobanis was reared from larvae and pupae found on a wall in N. India by Sevastopulo (1947). The larval head is small, black, the body grey, T1 with a transverse blackish stripe anteriorly. There are pale grey dorsal blotches on A1, A3, A4, A6 and A7, and a transverse stripe of the same colour on A9. There are short whitish setae on olive verrucae (or possibly pinacula, given the tribal character).

Pupation was in a slight web of white silk within a depression in the wall. The pupa is brown, the abdomen ringed and the wing cases veined with black. The cremaster is an elongate spine with two hooks, surrounded by shorter hooked spines.

The food was presumed to be lichens growing on the wall.

Issiki et al. (1965) illustrated the larva of the Japanese A. altaica Lederer. It appears bluish black with sparse black setae, a dull orange, broken dorsal stripe and further arcuate marks of the same colour lateral to it on each segment. The host was a foliose liverwort.

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