TRIBE NYGMIINI n.
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Toxoproctis munda Walker comb. n.  
   
Euproctis munda
Walker, 1862, J. Linn. Soc. (Zool.), 6:129.
   
Euproctis lodra
Moore sensu Holloway, 1976: 45.
   
Euproctis cornelia
Schintlmeister, 1994: 130, ?syn. n.


Toxoproctis munda

Toxoproctis munda

Toxoproctis munda




Diagnosis and taxonomic note.
This could be one variable species (See Toxoproctis dyssema Collenette), or a complex of species, as suggested by Schintlmeister (1994). However, he illustrated specimens that bear little resemblance to the holotype of munda either in facies or male genitalia. His taxon cornelia is closest in facies to munda and is therefore brought tentatively into synonymy. Males that were associated with Perina lodra Moore comb. n. in the BMNH and referred to by Toxopeus (1948) belong to the munda complex. Also, the next few species have very similar male genitalia, but can be distinguished on facies: association of females is as yet unsatisfactory, but these do show differences in the ostial area. T. munda has a characteristic stepped delineation of the border between the main warm grey zone of the forewing and the distal yellow border as illustrated. The intensity of the grey, its extent on the hindwing and the brightness of the yellow all vary, yielding a range of forms: the typical one has the grey darker, extensive, the yellow paler; forms possibly referable to cornelia have the grey much lighter, the yellow ground colour slightly brighter and tending to show through the grey more; and there are extensively yellow forms (possibly associated with heath forest) that might also be referable to cheela Swinhoe (See Toxoproctis cheela Swinhoe comb.n). The male genitalia of the complex have the uncus shoulders rather sloping, and the valves are squarish, the dorsal distal angle rounded, the more ventral one more irregular, cut off rather obliquely. The pair of apical spines of the aedeagus have one (slightly smaller) more or less straight, one angled acutely in reverse. The bands of spines in the vesica include a long one extending right across it, and one about half the length, slightly broader and with larger spines.

Geographical range. Sundaland.

Habitat preference. The species is infrequent in the lowlands, found particularly in heath, swamp and coastal forest types.

Biology. Material in BMNH from Peninsular Malaysia has been reared from Cananga (Annonaceae) and from the fruit of banana (Musa; Musaceae).

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