The references listed at the end of the discussion on larvae, together with Browne (1968), Pholboon (1965) and unpublished records in a card index maintained by Lepidoptera specialists of the Commonwealth Institute of Entomology, are the sources used in this survey of host-plant relationships and in the discussions of individual species later.

Several interesting patterns or relationships are becoming evident despite the sparseness of the data.

The majority of species defoliate dicotyledonous trees and shrubs but the Pydna Walker and Ambadra Moore groups of genera, together with Phalera combusta Walker (extending from India to Sumatra but not Borneo), feed on monocotyledons, mainly palms, bamboos and grasses. The streaky fawn, yellow or red forewing patterns of these groups reflect their feeding habit, paralleling the adults of other monocot-feeding species in other families such as the Mythimna and Sesamia groups in the Noctuidae, the crambine Pyralidae, and Psalis pennatula Fabricius in the Lymantriidae.

Several species are polyphagous over a range of plant families, such as Neostauropus alternus Walker and the Chadisra species from India. Species of the genus Phalera tend to be polyphagous but Oriental tropical species are found more frequently or exclusively (P. javana Moore) on Leguminosae.

A preliminary survey of host-plant relationships in the Indo-Australian macrolepidoptera has pinpointed a number of genera in other families that are restricted to Leguminosae such as, in the Ophiderinae (Noctuidae), the genera Lacera Guenee, Ericeia Walker and Rhesala Walker. The Notodontidae probably also include legume specialists, most conclusively the Allata Walker group of genera - Allata, Eguria Matsumura, Rosama Walker (Bell MS; Gardner 1943, 1946). Besida xylinata Walker has also been recorded from the family (Pholboon 1965).

Netria viridescens
Walker would appear to be restricted to the Sapotaceae, feeding on several genera of the family such as Mimusops, Madhuca, Sideroxylon (Bell MS) and Manilkara (CIE records) in India.

The genus Dudusa Walker may prove to be restricted to the Sapindaceae, with D. synopla Swinhoe recorded from Schleichera in India (Bell 1935, as nobilis Walker), a record from Thailand on Nephelium also attributed to nobilis (Pholboon 1965) and D. vethi Snellen recorded from Nephelium in Sumatra and Java (Kalshoven 1981, as nobilis).

The genera Teleclita and Pseudoteleclita have only been recorded from Terminalia (Combretaceae), in India (Bell MS), the Philippines (original material of T. cathana Schaus) and Australia (Dodd 1902; Turner 1903). African relatives in Afroplitis, Amyops and Galona Karsch have similar larvae that feed on Terminalia and Combretum in the Combretaceae but also on Parinari in the Chrysobalanaceae and guava (Myrtaceae) (Pinhey 1975). Two chloephorine noctuid genera, Aiteta Walker and Westermannia Hübner, also appear to be restricted to Terminalia in the Indo-Australian tropics but this plant genus is host to an unusually large number of Lepidoptera species, mostly polyphagous ones.

An interesting parallel in host-plant relationships is evident between the Clostera group of genera and the Cerura group; it is also shown by the nymphalid butterfly Phalanta phalantha Drury (Corbet & Pendlebury 1978). In the Palaearctic Region the host plants are Salicaceae, especially Salix and Populus, but in the tropics the majority of hosts are in the Flacourtiaceae, genera such as Casearia, Flacourtia, Scolopia (in Australia (Common 1963)) and Xylosma being recorded. In India both plant families have been noted as hosts and also in Hong-Kong (M. Bascombe in litt.). Terminalia is also involved in India (Brown 1968). Notocerura spiritalis Distant, an African member of the Cerura group with a characteristic larva, also has Flacourtia as a host (Pinhey 1975).

This relationship is less exclusive in Clostera than in the Cerura group. Records from a few other plant families have been made for the two major species groups in Clostera that extend into the Palaearctic. In the anachoretafulgurita group Palaearctic records are from Salicaceae. In India they are from both families (Browne 1968; Gardner 1943; CIE records) and also from Elaeodendron in the Celastraceae (Gardner 1943). There are no records from South-east Asia but the group has been reared from Flacourtiaceae in Hong-Kong (M. Bascombe in litt.). The anastomosis-restitura group is known from Salicaceae in the Palaearctic and Hong-Kong, from both families in India but also from Elaeocarpus (Elaeocarpaceae) there (Sevastopulo 1940). The Melanesian representative of the group, rubida Druce, has been reared from Terminalia in Papua New Guinea (CIE records). Southern African Clostera feed on Proteaceae (Pinhey 1975).

The two plant families are not taxonomically related according to Willis (1973), the Flacourtiaceae being linked with families such as the Passifloraceae, Euphorbiaceae and Tiliaceae rather than the Salicaceae.

There are several host-plant records for the Gargetta group of genera (Bell MS; Gardner 1943; Bascombe in litt.). Porsica ferreopicta Hampson, P.ingens Walker and Phycidopsis albovittata Hampson have all been recorded from Antidesma, Gargetta costigera Walker and G. ?divisa Gaede from Briedelia, Porsica punctifascia Hampson from Aporusa and Porsica curvaria Walker from Bischofia. All four plant genera were previously placed in the Euphorbiaceae but only Briedelia and Aporusa are still included (Willis 1973). Antidesma is the only genus of the Stilaginaceae, suggested by Willis to be intermediate between Icacinaceae and Euphorbiaceae, and Bischofia is likewise unique to its family, the Bischofiaceae, related by Willis to the Staphyleaceae with a comment that relationship with the Euphorbiaceae was probably illusory. The association of the three plant genera in respect of their utilisation by what is probably a natural group of Lepidoptera might indicate that their taxonomic relationships should be reexamined.

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