FAMILY NOTODONTIDAE
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Hexafrenum Matsumura

Hexafrenum nigricollaris Holloway comb. n
   
Allodonta nigricollaris Holloway, 1976: 57, fig. 376.


Hexafrenum nigricollaris (holotype)


Diagnosis.
There is a bluish-black tone to the forewing; the costal and dorsal cream markings on the postmedial stand out distinctly, the dorsal marking including white dots. The markings are generally more irregular than in the next species.

Taxonomic notes. The species is very similar in genitalia and facies to apicalis Kiriakoff from Sumatra. The forewing yellow subapical and subtornal markings are more pronounced, the forewing generally more mottled and the zone of prominence of the dark antemedial just posterior to the orbicular is bilobed rather than monolobed. In the male genitalia the valves are not so broadened apically and their costal spines are relatively smaller; the gnathal processes taper evenly rather than narrowing abruptly at one third; the uncus is longer with the bifurcation smaller, not angled exteriorly, subbasally; the dorsal apical process of the aedeagus is deeper, the ventral one subapically swollen.

The genus Allodontina Kiriakoff (1974: 409) was proposed to distinguish two tropical Oriental species from Allodonta Staudinger, of which the type species is the Korean plebeja Oberthur. Perhaps the most distinctive characteristics of Allodontina species are the long processes dorsally and ventrally at the aedeagus apex, though these are weak in species such as collaris Swinhoe. Examination of several Oriental taxa in Allodonta sensu Kiriakoff (1968) and Allodontina has indicated that the name Allodonta Staudinger should be restricted to plebeja and all other Oriental taxa are best placed in Hexafrenum Matsumura, gen. rev., which is based on the Taiwan species maculifer Matsumura and was placed as a junior synonym of Allodonta by Kiriakoff (1968). Hexafrenum as recognised here is defined by the long, slender, apically bifurcate uncus combined with the presence of processes from the aedeagus apex in most species as well as general facies similarities. It follows that Allodontina becomes a junior synonym of Hexafrenum, syn. n. The taxon basipuncta Matsumura (Kiriakoff 1968, as bon. sp.) is regarded as a junior synonym of maculifer (Sugi 1979). The other species hereby combined with Hexafrenum are: H. sikkima Moore comb. n., H. longivitta Gaede comb. n., H. collaris Swinhoe comb. n., H. argillacea Kiriakoff (1963: 278) comb. n., H. apicalis Kiriakoff (1974) comb. n., H. unicolor Kiriakoff (1974) comb. n.

Coreodonta coreana Matsumura is, from consideration of the male genitalia illustrated by Sugi (1979: 44), probably a synonym of plebeja Oberthur, certainly a congener, therefore Coreodonta Matsumura, based on coreana, must be regarded as synonym of Allodonta Staudinger, syn. n. Kiriakoff, in the Palaearctic volume (1967) of his treatment of Notodontidae in Genera Insectorum, placed Coreodonta as a synonym of Takodonta Matsumura, a synonymy which should be reexamined.

Geographical range. Borneo.

Habitat preference. The species was taken frequently from 1000 - 2000 m on G. Kinabalu and at about 1700 m in upper montane forest on G. Mulu.

Biology. The larva of Hexafrenum sikkima was illustrated by Issiki (1969). It is pale emerald green, sparsely haired, with lateral double red stripes on the head and a red dorsal stripe that is partly green between humped prominences at the anterior and posterior end of the abdominal section.

Sugi & Nakatomi (1969) gave Castanea (Fagaceae) as the primary Japanese host-plant of sikkima, but noted that the species also fed on several other genera in the Fagales.

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