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Antiphalera Gaede

Antiphalera sumatrana Kiriakoff comb. n
Grangulina sumatrana Kiriakoff, 1974: 377.
Grangulina sumatran Kiriakoff; Holloway 1976: 57, fig. 375.

Antiphalera sumatrana

The elongate forewings with closely adjacent pale medial stigmata and double fasciae, the postmedial exteriorly bidentate over the anterior half, distinguish this species from other Bornean taxa. The long, widely spaced gnathal processes and the broad serrate apex to the aedeagus in the male genitalia are also distinctive.

Taxonomic note. The type species of Antiphalera Gaede, the N.E. Himalayan bilineata Hampson, resembles sumatrana, the type species of Grangulina, very closely in facies characters. Therefore Grangulina is here placed as a synonym of Antiphalera, syn. n. Kiriakoff (1968) published an illustration of male genitalia purporting to be those of bilineata but they are in fact those of Phalera torpida Walker. It is thus highly likely that the Nepalese Grangulina montana Kiriakoff, described with sumatrana, will prove to be a junior synonym of bilineata when male material of the latter has been located for comparison; for the time being it will merely be combined with Antiphalera as A. montana Kiriakoff comb. n.

Geographical range. Sumatra, Borneo.

Habitat preference. The species is infrequent in upper montane forest between about 1500 m and 2000 m. It has been taken on G. Kinabalu, Sabah, on G. Mulu, Sarawak, and on Bukit Retak and Bukit Pagon in Brunei.

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