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Kunugia Nagano Gen. rev.

Type species: yamadai Nagano.

This large Oriental group of species has been reviewed by Lajonquière (1973) and Holloway (1982) in association with the geus Cyclophragma Turner, based on an Australian species and including a number of tropical Australian taxa. Holloway (1982) indicated that this generic combination was likely to prove erroneous once the identity of C. cyclomela Lower had been established; certainly there are no Australian species with the characteristics of the Oriental group. Australian colleagues consider that the Australian group referred to by Holloway contains cyclomela and therefore application of the name Cyclophragma to the Oriental group is inappropriate. The name Kunugia Nagano is available.

Thus the following taxa, and those discussed in the specific section, must be placed in Kunugia (original references given in Lajonquière (1973) and Holloway (1982)): yamadai Nagano comb. rev. (Japan); xichangensis Tsai & Lu comb. n. (China); tamsi Lajonquière comb. n. (China); omeiensis Tsai & Lu comb. n. (China); ampla Walker comb. n. (Himalaya); latipennis Walker comb. n. (Himalaya); fasciata Moore comb. n. (Himalaya); brunnea Wileman comb. n. (Taiwan, China); burmensis Gaede comb. n. (Burma); fulgens Moore comb. n. (Himalaya); dora Swinhoe comb. n. (Java, Sumatra); sumatrae Swinhoe comb. n. (Sumatra); basidiscata Holloway comb. n. (Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra); placida Moore comb. n. (Himalaya); lineata Moore comb. n. (Himalaya).

The genus is allied to Dendrolimus Germar, and the forewing facies of both genera, as in Lebeda Walker, consists of four roughly parallel fasciae with the space between the central two generally paler, and with the pale discal spot situated between the first and second fasciae as in Suana but not in Lebeda. The diagnostic feature is in the cubile arms. These are slender with a series of short spines along the dorsal surface to the apex. The valves are short, a finger-like process set on a broad basal plate that is partially setose. The male antennal pectinations are not significantly longer over the basal portion of the antenna.

The larva of K. latipennis was described by Gardner (1941), and also by Sevastopulo (1939). The lateral protruberances are as in previous genera though those of the abdomen are rather weak. The verrucae are not distinct. The general skin colour is dark brown with vague pale lines. The metathorax has a vague transverse black mark dorsally. There are dorsolateral groups of black and yellow setae on each segment, two patches of short, stiff setae between thin tufts of larger yellow ones. Otherwise secondary setae are sparse, some black, a few yellow.

The larva is an arboreal defoliator (Gardner, 1941), the trees attacked including Shorea (Dipterocarpaceae). No details of the range of hosts have been located. Records for Dendrolimus are mainly from conifers; the single record located for Australian Cyclophragma is from Pinus in Papua New Guinea.

Apart from the species listed, there are undescribed taxa known from Sri Lanka, Sumatra, Bali and Sulawesi. The genus is thus restricted to the Oriental tropics with its greatest diversity in lands on the Sunda Shelf.

The last species discussed in the specific account, K. drakei sp. n., belongs to a trio of closely related species two of which were discussed by Lajonquière (1978a), who placed them in Cyclophragma on grounds of antennal and venation characters and the form of the aedeagus. They are retained within his concept of the genus here under Kunugia but they lack, along with K. quadrilineata, the spined margin to the cubile arm that distinguishes the genus most reliably. The species are, as in Lajonquière's title, 'marginal' to Kunugia.

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