Kunugia Nagano Gen. rev.
species: yamadai Nagano.
This large Oriental group of species has been reviewed by Lajonquière
(1973) and Holloway (1982) in association with the geus Cyclophragma
Turner, based on an Australian species and including a number of tropical
Australian taxa. Holloway (1982) indicated that this generic combination
was likely to prove erroneous once the identity of C. cyclomela Lower had
been established; certainly there are no Australian species with the
characteristics of the Oriental group. Australian colleagues consider that
the Australian group referred to by Holloway contains cyclomela and
therefore application of the name Cyclophragma to the Oriental group is
inappropriate. The name Kunugia Nagano is available.
Thus the following taxa, and those discussed in the specific section, must
be placed in Kunugia (original references given in Lajonquière (1973) and
Holloway (1982)): yamadai Nagano comb. rev. (Japan);
xichangensis Tsai & Lu comb. n. (China); tamsi
Lajonquière comb. n. (China); omeiensis Tsai & Lu comb.
n. (China); ampla Walker comb. n. (Himalaya);
latipennis Walker comb. n. (Himalaya); fasciata Moore comb.
n. (Himalaya); brunnea Wileman comb. n. (Taiwan,
China); burmensis Gaede comb. n. (Burma); fulgens Moore comb.
n. (Himalaya); dora Swinhoe comb. n. (Java,
Sumatra); sumatrae Swinhoe comb. n. (Sumatra);
basidiscata Holloway comb. n. (Peninsular Malaysia,
Sumatra); placida Moore comb. n. (Himalaya); lineata
Moore comb. n. (Himalaya).
The genus is allied to Dendrolimus Germar, and the forewing facies of both
genera, as in Lebeda Walker, consists of four roughly parallel fasciae
with the space between the central two generally paler, and with the pale
discal spot situated between the first and second fasciae as in Suana but
not in Lebeda. The diagnostic feature is in the cubile arms. These are
slender with a series of short spines along the dorsal surface to the
apex. The valves are short, a finger-like process set on a broad basal
plate that is partially setose. The male antennal pectinations are not
significantly longer over the basal portion of the antenna.
The larva of K. latipennis was described by Gardner (1941), and also by
Sevastopulo (1939). The lateral protruberances are as in previous genera
though those of the abdomen are rather weak. The verrucae are not
distinct. The general skin colour is dark brown with vague pale lines. The
metathorax has a vague transverse black mark dorsally. There are
dorsolateral groups of black and yellow setae on each segment, two patches
of short, stiff setae between thin tufts of larger yellow ones. Otherwise
secondary setae are sparse, some black, a few yellow.
The larva is an arboreal defoliator (Gardner, 1941), the trees attacked
including Shorea (Dipterocarpaceae). No details of the range of hosts have
been located. Records for Dendrolimus are mainly from conifers; the single
record located for Australian Cyclophragma is from Pinus in Papua New
from the species listed, there are undescribed taxa known from Sri Lanka,
Sumatra, Bali and Sulawesi. The genus is thus restricted to the Oriental
tropics with its greatest diversity in lands on the Sunda Shelf.
The last species discussed in the specific account, K. drakei sp.
n., belongs to a trio of closely related species two of which
were discussed by Lajonquière (1978a), who placed them in Cyclophragma on
grounds of antennal and venation characters and the form of the aedeagus.
They are retained within his concept of the genus here under Kunugia but
they lack, along with K. quadrilineata, the spined margin to the cubile
arm that distinguishes the genus most reliably. The species are, as in
Lajonquière's title, 'marginal' to Kunugia.
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