Superfamily BOMBYCOIDEA (177 species)

Family SATURNIIDAE (28 species)

Subfamily SATURNIINAE (28 species)

Tribe SATURNIINI (25 species)

Actias selene Hübner (Part 3, p. 96). Oriental tropics to Sundaland, Philippines. (Lowland). Note 85. Note 85. Nässig et al. (1996) and Nässig & Treadaway (1998a) suggested that Actias selene, an apparently wide‑ranging species, may prove to be a complex. The name seitzi Kalis is the oldest name available for the Sundaland populations of selene, though Beck & Nässig (2008) referred the Bornean population to ssp. vandenberghi Roepke, whilst indicating that the status of Sundaland populations was not satisfactorily resolved, referring to Paukstadt & Paukstadt (1999, Ent. Zeitschr., Essen, 189: 484-491).

Actias maenas Doubleday (Part 3, p. 97). Oriental tropics to Sundaland. (Lowland). Note 86. Note 86. Nässig (1994) and Nässig et al. (1996) treated more easterly populations of the maenas group as distinct species rather than as conspecific as in Part 3, with A. isis Sonthonnax in Sulawesi, and A. groenendaeli Roepke in the Lesser Sundas (see also Paukstadt et al. (2010) for more recent developments). They considered taxa described from the Moluccas to be mislabelled. Nässig & Treadaway (1998a) described a further member of the group,A. philippinica Nässig & Treadaway, from the Philippines. Beck & Nässig (2008) referred Bornean maenas to ssp. diana Maassen, indicating that relationships between Sundanian and Indochinese populations required further investigation.

Antheraea borneensis Moore (Part 3, p. 99, as helferi Moore). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra. Lowland, (upper montane). Note 87. Note 87. Rolfe & Naumann (2009) indicated that, from DNA barcoding, the Antheraea taxa helferi Moore (Himalaya, N. Thailand), borneensis Moore and imperator Watson (Java) should be distinguished as good species.

Antheraea diehli Lemaire (Part 3, p. 100). Sundaland. Lowland. Note 88. Note 88. Nässig & Beck (2005) described a greyish brown male form of diehli from Borneo. Rolfe & Naumann (2009) clarified the identification of females of A. diehli with the support of DNA barcoding (the females on plate 13 of Part 3 are correctly identified); this has also indicated a relationship between diehli, the mainland Asian yamamai Guérin‑Méneville and hagedorni Naumann & Lourens from Luzon in the Philippines.

Antheraea larissa Westwood (Part 3, p. 100). Thailand, Burma, Sundaland, Philippines. Lowland.

Antheraea youngi Watson (Part 3, p. 101, as assamensis Helfer). Sundaland. (Lowland). Note 89. Note 89. Nässig et al. (1996) indicated that the Sundanian taxon A. youngi Watson was conspecific with castanea Jordan (N.E. Himalaya) rather than with assamensis Helfer, the traditional placement. However, Beck & Nässig (2008), whilst maintaining distinctness for assamensis, treated youngi as a distinct species. All three taxa are currently (Naumann, et. al., 2008) regarded as good species.

Antheraea platessa Rothschild (Part 3, p. 101, as jana Stoll). Burma, Thailand, Vietnam, Laos, China (Yunnan), Sundaland, ?Sulawesi. Lowland. Note 90. Note 90. It was noted in Part 3 that the use of jana Stoll was probably incorrect for the populations of Antheraea traditionally referred to this name. Nässig (1992; reviewed also by  Nässig et al. (1996)), after a close examination of the original description and illustration of jana, concluded that it was definitely a different species, and also decided that Sundanian material was not referable to andamana Moore (Andamans). The oldest available name is platessa Rothschild. Holloway et al. (1996) suggested that the presence of the species on Sulawesi is likely to be due to human introduction.

Antheraea lampei Nässig & Holloway (Part 3, p. 102, as korintjiana Bouvier; Nässig & Holloway, 1989). Sundaland. (Upper montane). Note 91. Note 91. Nässig & Holloway (1989) discussed the identity of A. korintjiana Bouvier in relation to the discovery from rearing that two very similar species flew in Sumatra. Thus, korintjiana was found to be a subspecies of the Himalayan A. roylei Moore. The other Sumatran species, conspecific with the material referred to korintjiana in Part 3, was new, and was described as A. lampei Nässig & Holloway. In males, the forewing apex is squarer than in korintjiana, and the hindwing margin is straight rather than rounded.

Antheraea roylei Moore (Beck & Nässig, 2008, as roylii). Himalaya to Sundaland. (Montane). Note 92. Note 92. Beck & Nässig (2008) recorded a specimen of A. royleikorintjiana from 1170m in the Crocker Range of Sabah. The use of roylii as specific epithet, rather than roylei (after Royle) as in Nässig  & Holloway (1989) and Nässig et al.  (1996), is because use of the former version of the name by Moore (1859) is thought to have appeared in print prior to the publication of the latter version of the name, flagged as a new species with listing of material, by Moore in Horsfield & Moore (1858-1859 [1860]). This second publication makes cross-reference to Moore (1859) but without an indication of pagination or plate numbers. However, Moore (1859) did provide such details in cross‑reference to the Horsfield & Moore account, which could be an indication that he had to hand at least page‑proofs of this allegedly later publication! The case for the retention of the name roylei for this species in preference to roylii is presented by Nässig & Holloway (2010).

Antheraea broschi Naumann (Part 3, p. 103, as celebensis Watson). Sundaland. Lowland to upper montane. Note 93. Note 93. Nässig et al. (1996) discussed the complexity of taxa that might be involved in the A. frithi subgroup, and they treated A. gschwandneri Niepelt as a species distinct from celebensis Watson rather than as a subspecies thereof as in Part 3. Holloway et al. (1996), in describing an endemic radiation of five species of the frithi group in Sulawesi, also examined celebensis and concluded it was distinct from Sundanian populations, though more closely related to them than to the endemic radiation. The Bornean species was tentatively associated with the name gschwandneri by Nässig et al. (1996). A. gschwandneri zwicki Nässig & Treadaway (1998a) was described from Palawan with further discussion of the taxonomic complexities; this taxon was subsequently (Naumann, 2001) treated as a full species. Naumann (2001) conducted an intensive review of the complex in Sundaland, particularly Borneo and concluded that at least three species were sympatric in Borneo. He described A. broschi Naumann as new, and related the male in Part 3, Plate 11: 4 to it and also the female illustrated in Allen (1981: p. 107, pl. 11a). It appears to be the most frequently recorded species in Borneo, though was not reliably separated from A. steinkeorum U. & L. Paukstadt & Brosch by Beck & Nässig (2008), but see Note 94 below. A. zwicki Nässig & Treadaway is not closely related to gschwandneri and is also recorded from Borneo (Naumann, 2001; Beck & Nässig, 2008). The whole frithi subgroup will probably need to be resolved by molecular analysis. Naumann (2001) could find no completely reliable differences in the male genitalia.

Antheraea steinkeorum U. & L. Paukstadt & Brosch (Naumann, 2001). Sundaland. (?Lowland). Note 94. Note 94. A specimen of A. steinkeorum from Borneo was illustrated by Naumann (2001: pl. 2, fig 15). It occurs in S. Burma, S. Thailand, Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra and Borneo. Externally (Naumann, 2001: fig 15), it appears to be similar to broschi, and Naumann did not make a clear textual distinction between the two species on the basis of external features. The species is also illustrated (as a small dark brown form of gschwandneri) by W.A. Nässig et al. (1996: figs 8 and 24) where differences from broschi are evident (S. Naumann, pers. comm.): a more uniform brown colour; absence of yellow areas; wing ocelli lacking hyaline centres; a more undulating postmedial fascia to the forewing. There are differences in the length of the aedeagus (longer in broschi) and in the bristles of the dorsal processes of the valve in the male genitalia.

Antheraea zwicki Nässig & Treadaway (Naumann, 2001). Palawan, Borneo. (?Lowland). Note 95. Note 95. A. zwicki has been recorded from Borneo (Brunei) and resembles moultoni most closely. The centres of the wing ocelli are hyaline, and the antemedial posterior to the cell in the forewing is straighter; there are subcostal areas of yellow subapically and basal to the ocellus on the forewing that are absent from moultoni (Nässig & Treadaway, 1998a, plate 11: 74; Naumann, 2001, fig 9).

Antheraea moultoni Watson (Part 3, p. 103). Endemic. Lowland, mostly mangrove. Note 95. Note 95. A. zwicki has been recorded from Borneo (Brunei) and resembles moultoni most closely. The centres of the wing ocelli are hyaline, and the antemedial posterior to the cell in the forewing is straighter; there are subcostal areas of yellow subapically and basal to the ocellus on the forewing that are absent from moultoni (Nässig & Treadaway, 1998a, plate 11: 74; Naumann, 2001, fig 9).

Antheraea alleni Holloway (Part 3, p. 104) Endemic. Upper montane, (lowland kerangas).

Antheraea brunei Allen & Holloway (Part 3, p. 105). Borneo, Belitung I, ?Sumatra. Mangrove. Note 96. Note 96. Naumann (1994) and Nässig et al. (1996) have described a reddish brown form of A. brunei and its early stages. The range has been extended beyond Borneo to Belitung I. and possibly Sumatra, though the restriction to mangrove is supported; presence in there localities needs confirmation from fresh collecting (S. Naumann, pers. comm.). The taxon from Palawan attributed to brunei in Part 3 and by Nässig et al. (1996) has been described as a distinct species, gulata Nässig & Treadaway (1998a); see also Naumann (2008). Beck & Nässig (2008) indicated that the species was probably endemic to Borneo and a few smaller islands nearby.

Antheraea rosieri Toxopeus (Part 3, p. 105). Sundaland, Philippines. Lowland, (upper montane).

Loepa sikkima Moore (Part 3, p. 106). N.E. Himalaya, Sundaland. (Lowland).

Loepa martinii Brechlin & Paukstadt (Part 3, p. 107, as megacore Jordan). Endemic. (Lowland), upper montane. Note 97. Note 97. The Bornean population previously attributed to Loepa megacore has been separated as L. martinii Brechlin & U. Paukstadt (2010) on the basis of DNA barcoding results. The forewing antemedial is more prominently black. Brechlin (2010a) has described nine new taxa in Loepa from China to Sulawesi, though none of these was from Borneo.

Lemaireia loepoides Butler (Part 3, p. 108). Sundaland. Lowland (to upper montane).

Lemaireia chrysopeplus Toxopeus (Beck & Nässig, 2008). Sumatra, Java, Borneo. (Lowland). Note 98. Note 98. A record of Lemaireia chrysopeplus from S. Kalimantan was noted by Beck & Nässig (2008). The most obvious difference from loepoides is in the ocellar rings surrounding the hindwing hyaline spot, running from inner to outer as follows: blackish brown, greyish, brown (loepoides); red, greyish, brownish black (chrysopeplus). These rings are more sharply defined, the outermost one narrower, in chrysopeplus. Nässig & Wang (2006) have extended the range of the genus to China, describing a new species from Hainan.

Cricula trifenestrata Helfer (Part 3, p. 109). Oriental tropics to Sulawesi and N. Moluccas. Lowland to upper montane.

Cricula bornea Watson (Part 3, p. 110). Endemic. (Lowland). Note 99. Note 99. Brechlin (2010a) based description of a new species, Criculakalimantanensis Brechlin, on a single female that Naumann (2010b) considered belonged to the trifenestrata Helfer group and was possibly the previously unknown female of C. bornea Watson. This latter suggestion needs further investigation. The holotype of kalimantanensis was taken at 1100m in the vicinity of  Loksado in S. Kalimantan.

Cricula kalimantanensis Brechlin (2010). Endemic. Note 99. Note 99. Brechlin (2010a) based description of a new species, Criculakalimantanensis Brechlin, on a single female that Naumann (2010b) considered belonged to the trifenestrata Helfer group and was possibly the previously unknown female of C. bornea Watson. This latter suggestion needs further investigation. The holotype of kalimantanensis was taken at 1100m in the vicinity of  Loksado in S. Kalimantan.

Cricula elaezia Jordan (Naumann & Löffler, 2010). Java, S. E. Borneo. (Lowland). Note 100. Note 100. Naumann & Löffler (2010) have shown that, on the basis of DNA barcode evidence correlated with minor differences in features of facies and male genitalia, the concept of C. elaezia Jordan as presented in Part 3 is part of a complex of species, two of which occur in Borneo, possibly allopatrically. The species illustrated for Borneo in Part 3 and earlier works has been described by them as C. magnifenestrata Naumann & Löffler and by Brechlin (2010a) as C. elaezioborneensis Brechlin and C. elaeziopahangensis Brechlin (a few days later according to Naumann (2010), who placed the Brechlin names as junior synonyms, (but see Paukstadt & Paukstadt (2010) and Paukstadt (2010) for an alternative viewpoint, reversing these synonymies). At the time of writing, as indicated on p. 305, there was no indication of how this unfortunate conflict would be resolved, but it is to be hoped that the views of Nässig et al. (2010) will prevail; therefore these are followed here, and this specific taxon is treated as magnifenestrata. It occurs also in Peninsular Malaysia, but with much reduced genetic variability compared with the Bornean population (Nässig et al., 2010). True elaezia occurs in southern Borneo and Java, with ssp.pelengensis Paukstadt & Paukstadt (=  baliensis Naumann & Löffler (Paukstadt & Paukstadt, 2010)) in Bali. Nässig et al. (1996) suggested that the presence of Cricula elaezia in Buru (the taxon buruensis Jordan) was due to introduction by human transport, but Nässig et al. (2010) have added the possibility that the specimen was mislabelled and probably came from Java.

     Male elaezia is smaller than magnifenestrata, a more greyish green colour, with a more strongly falcate forewing apex. Transparent patches of the forewing are usually reduced to one large one, rather than three, in magnifenestrata. The uncus in elaezia has shorter, more acute processes, and the lobes of the juxta are generally smaller.

     Naumann & Löffler (2010) and Nässig et al. (2010), have showed that the two Bornean taxa are part of a much wider complex that extends through Sundaland, the Philippines and Sulawesi. The taxa concerned are the two discussed above, together with C. sumatrensis Jordan (Sumatra), C. separata Naumann & Löffler (Sumatra), C. palawanica Brechlin (Palawan), C. mindanaensis Nässig & Treadaway (Mindanao) and C. quinquefenestrata Roepke (Sulawesi). DNA barcoding sequences (Nässig et al., 2010) have indicated that these species have the following relationship, though data for palawanica were not included: (sumatrensis (magnifenestrata (separata, elaezia (mindanaensis, quinquefenestrata)))). This relationship is derived from phenetic analyses rather than cladistic ones.

Cricula magnifenestrata Naumann & Löffler (Part 3, p. 110, as elaezia). Peninsular Malaysia, N. & C. Borneo. Lowland to montane. Note 100. Note 100. Naumann & Löffler (2010) have shown that, on the basis of DNA barcode evidence correlated with minor differences in features of facies and male genitalia, the concept of C. elaezia Jordan as presented in Part 3 is part of a complex of species, two of which occur in Borneo, possibly allopatrically. The species illustrated for Borneo in Part 3 and earlier works has been described by them as C. magnifenestrata Naumann & Löffler and by Brechlin (2010a) as C. elaezioborneensis Brechlin and C. elaeziopahangensis Brechlin (a few days later according to Naumann (2010), who placed the Brechlin names as junior synonyms, (but see Paukstadt & Paukstadt (2010) and Paukstadt (2010) for an alternative viewpoint, reversing these synonymies). At the time of writing, as indicated on p. 305, there was no indication of how this unfortunate conflict would be resolved, but it is to be hoped that the views of Nässig et al. (2010) will prevail; therefore these are followed here, and this specific taxon is treated as magnifenestrata. It occurs also in Peninsular Malaysia, but with much reduced genetic variability compared with the Bornean population (Nässig et al., 2010). True elaezia occurs in southern Borneo and Java, with ssp.pelengensis Paukstadt & Paukstadt (=  baliensis Naumann & Löffler (Paukstadt & Paukstadt, 2010)) in Bali. Nässig et al. (1996) suggested that the presence of Cricula elaezia in Buru (the taxon buruensis Jordan) was due to introduction by human transport, but Nässig et al. (2010) have added the possibility that the specimen was mislabelled and probably came from Java.

     Male elaezia is smaller than magnifenestrata, a more greyish green colour, with a more strongly falcate forewing apex. Transparent patches of the forewing are usually reduced to one large one, rather than three, in magnifenestrata. The uncus in elaezia has shorter, more acute processes, and the lobes of the juxta are generally smaller.

     Naumann & Löffler (2010) and Nässig et al. (2010), have showed that the two Bornean taxa are part of a much wider complex that extends through Sundaland, the Philippines and Sulawesi. The taxa concerned are the two discussed above, together with C. sumatrensis Jordan (Sumatra), C. separata Naumann & Löffler (Sumatra), C. palawanica Brechlin (Palawan), C. mindanaensis Nässig & Treadaway (Mindanao) and C. quinquefenestrata Roepke (Sulawesi). DNA barcoding sequences (Nässig et al., 2010) have indicated that these species have the following relationship, though data for palawanica were not included: (sumatrensis (magnifenestrata (separata, elaezia (mindanaensis, quinquefenestrata)))). This relationship is derived from phenetic analyses rather than cladistic ones.

Tribe ATTACINI (3 species)

Attacus atlas Linnaeus (Part 3, p. 111). Oriental tropics to Sundaland. Lowland to upper montane.

Archaeoattacus staudingeri Rothschild (Part 3, p. 112). Peninsular Malaysia, Borneo, Sumatra, Java. (Lowland to montane). Note 101. Note 101. Häuser et al. (1996) described and illustrated the early stages of Archaeoattacus staudingeri. The species was reared in captivity, and the natural host plant was not recorded. Nässig, Naumann & Rougerie (2010) recorded staudingeri from altitudes up to 1600m.

[Archaeoattacus edwardsii White (Fukuda, 2001). Note 102. Note 102. Fukuda (2001) recorded Archaeoattacus edwardsii, the mainland Asian sister-species of staudingeri, from lowland coastal forest at Miri in Sarawak. He considered the material to belong to ssp. malayanus Kurosawa & Kishida from Peninsular Malaysia. He illustrated the material, and it is correctly identified as malayanus (W.A. Nässig, pers. comm.). However, Beck & Nässig (2008) and Nässig, Naumann & Rougerie (2010) have cast doubt on the provenance of the material or, alternatively, its native status, and therefore on the validity of this record from Borneo. The two taxa are therefore probably only sympatric in Peninsular Malaysia. It has now been established on DNA barcode evidence (Nässig & Naumann, in press) that all three named taxa merit specific status, with edwardsii (Indian Himalaya, Nepal, Bhutan) being sister to malayanus (N.E. India (Khasi Hills), W. China to Peninsular Malaysia) and staudingeri. ]

Samia tetrica Rebel (Part 3, p. 113). Peninsular Malaysia, Borneo. Lowland, (upper montane). Note 103. Note 103. Nässig et al. (1996) placed Samia tetrica Rebel as a subspecies of insularis Vollenhoven (Java), with ssp. vaneeckei Watson in Sumatra. Samia species in mainland Asia have been reviewed by Peigler (1992) who suggested that the species referred to cynthia Drury in Barlow (1982) was is more likely to be walkeri C. & R. Felder or another species. Two endemic species occur in Sulawesi (Naumann & Nässig, 1995) and two in the Philippines (one in Palawan and another throughout the main archipelago; Nässig & Treadaway, 1998a). Peigler & Naumann (2003) presented an exhaustive revision of the genus Samia, extending its range east to Timor in the  Lesser Sundas and to the Moluccas, and recording the early stages as feeding in nature on 26 families of dicotyledonous plants. The taxon from Peninsular Malaysia attributed to walkeri (a synonym of cynthia Drury) is S. kohlli Naumann & Peigler, also occurring through the S.E. Asian Peninsula north to south-west China. The other Sundanian species are tetrica (Peninsular Malaysia, Borneo), insularis (Sumatra, Java) and abrerai Naumann & Peigler (Java, Bali).

 


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