Superfamily NOCTUOIDEA (2848 species)

Family NOTODONTIDAE (137 species)

Tarsolepis remicauda Butler (Part 4: p. 17, as sommeri Hübner). S. China, Indochina, Sundaland, Philippines. Lowland forest. Note 260. Note 260. Tarsolepis remicauda was synonymised with sommeri in error in Part 4, and rectified by Holloway & Bender (1985: 110‑111). Schintlmeister (1994b) stated it occurred in N. Vietnam and later (S & P) described a subspecies, captura Schintlmeister, from there, Thailand and S. China. He included the Philippines and Lombok in the range and noted a related species in Sulawesi and Halmahera. The typical race occurs through most of the Philippines but ssp. fuscata Schintlmeister & Lourens (2010) occurs in Palawan.

Tarsolepis malayana Nakamura (Part 4: p. 18, as rufobrunnea Rothschild). N. Vietnam, Sundaland. (Lowland forest). Note 261. Note 261. Schintlmeister (1994b) revived the specific status of T. malayana, which is now known to extend to N. Vietnam and may well be sympatric with rufobrunnea Rothschild in this part of its range. S & P added Thailand, Burma and S. Yunnan to the range.

Dudusa vethi Snellen (Part 4: p. 18). S. Thailand (S & P), Sundaland, Palawan. Lowland forest. Note 262. Note 262. Schintlmeister & Lourens (2010) noted that ssp. borneensis Roepke of Dudusa vethi differs slightly from the typical race in having a different shape to the valves with a smaller saccular process. This subspecies also occurs in Palawan.

Dudusa synopla Swinhoe (Part 4: p. 19). Indian Subregion to China and Sundaland. (Lowland and montane). Note 263. Note 263. Schintlmeister (1994b) erroneously attributed Dudusa synopla to Walker, but it was correctly assigned by Schintlmeister (1991 [1992]), who indicated a much more extensive geographical range, including China.

Gargetta hampsoni Schintlmeister (Part 4: p. 20). Sundaland, Philippines, Sulawesi. (Lowland). Note 264. Note 264. Schintlmeister & Lourens (2010) described a subspecies of G. hampsoni from the Philippines, ssp. occulta Schintlmeister & Lourens.

Gargetta costigeroides Holloway (Part 4: p. 21). Borneo, Sumatra. (Lowland). Note 265. Note 265. Schintlmeister (1994b) assessed whether Gargetta costigeroides occurred in Sumatra as suggested by Bender (1985), and considered one of the specimens illustrated by Bender (plate 11: 16) to be of divisa Gaede. He considered that the one on plate 3: 7 is possibly costigeroides, and noted a definite specimen in ZSM, Munich.

Gargetta curvaria Hampson (Part 4: p. 26, under Porsica). N. E. Himalaya, Sundaland, Philippines. (Lowland). Note 266. Note 266. Schintlmeister & Lourens (2010), whilst noting comments in Part 4 on the intermediate character of curvaria between Porsica and Gargetta, considered that the species should be transferred to Gargetta. They also placed the Philippines material attributed to dyspines West in Part 4 as a synonym of luzonica Semper and as a subspecies of curvaria.

Stictogargetta lithosidia Hampson (Part 4: p. 22). N. E. Himalaya, Sundaland. (Lowland forest).

Thacona costivitta Walker (Part 4: p. 25, as Porsica circumducta Gaede). Sundaland. (Lowland forest). Note 267. Note 267. The holotype of Thacona costivitta Walker in OUMNH, Oxford (Lep. No 1921) from Sarawak proves to be conspecific with Porsica [Gargetta] circumducta Gaede and is therefore a senior synonym, syn. n. It is the type species of Thacona Walker, [1863] 1864, which is therefore a senior synonym of Porsica Walker, 1866, syn. n. The original reference for costivitta is:

Thacona costivitta Walker [1863] 1864, J. Proc. Linn. Soc. (Zool.), 7: 169.

Watson et al. (1980) list the genus Thacona under Notodontidae where placed by Swinhoe (1892) as No 1389 in Part 1: 300 (not Part 2 as cited) of his catalogue of the Heterocera in OUMNH, Oxford. All species currently in Porsica must therefore be transferred to Thacona as combs. n. In the unpublished catalogue of Lepidoptera types at Oxford by I. Lansbury (1970), Type No 1921 is listed erroneously as Carissa cossoides Walker (see Batracharta cossoides Walker in Part 15 & 16: 208; the true type of this species is No. 1463). The holotype of costivitta was taken by A.R. Wallace.

Thacona benderi Schintlmeister comb. n. (Part 4: p. 22, under Porsica). S. Thailand (S & P), Sundaland. (Lowland forest).

Thacona punctifascia Hampson comb. n. (Part 4: p. 23, under Porsica). N.E. Himalaya, S. China to Sundaland, Philippines. (Lowland forest).

Thacona ingens Walker comb. n. (Part 4: p. 24, under Porsica). N. E. Himalaya to S.E. China (S & P) and Sundaland. (Lowland to lower montane forest).

Thacona rufocostata Gaede comb. n. (Part 4: p. 25, under Porsica). Borneo, Sumatra. (Lowland).

Thacona albescens Gaede comb. n. (Part 4: p. 25, under Porsica). Sundaland, Philippines. (Lowland forest).

Hijracona punctifascioides sp. n. (p. 349, Plate 7, Fig 93). Endemic. (Lowland forest). Note 268. Note 268. Hijracona Gen. n. Type species: punctifascioides sp. n.

Externally this genus has facies as in Thacona, particularly T. punctifascia Hampson and allies. The only specimen was originally thought to be a female of punctifascia, almost identical in facies to that illustrated for punctifascia in Thailand by S & P (2007), particularly in the slightly creamier ground colour and the narrower dark patch on the forewing dorsum between the medial and the antemedial. The marginal black marks between the veins on the forewing are divided into two rather than entire as in punctifascia. The male antennae are very narrowly bipectinate, each of the rami with a strong tuft of setae from its apex. The length of the rami reduces gradually with distance along the flagellum.

The most striking differences are in the male abdomen. The eighth sternite and tergite have a central ridge of thickening, that of the former shorter and flanked by a pair of somewhat sinuous sclerites, broadest and incurved distally, that then taper to give rise to slender lobes. The tergite has broad, rectangular apodemes. The seventh sternite has a central apodeme. In Thacona, the eighth segment is relatively unmodified, and the apodemes are normal, tapering. The genitalia have the uncus entire, without socii, as in most Thacona, but it is distinctly crested as illustrated. The tegumen is much wider and deeper than in Thacona. The vinculum on each side lacks the lacunae seen in Thacona punctifascia. The juxta is more complex. The valves are paddle-like, rather than tapering, and have a small central spur and an unusual flap-like structure associated with their basal half. The aedeagus is slender and about as long as the valves. In Thacona the aedeagus is usually robust, three times as broad as in Hijracona and shorter than the valve.

Hijracona punctifascioides sp. n. (Plate 7, Fig 93) G 26mm. See the generic account. The species is very similar to Thacona punctifascia Hampson, but has a creamier ground colour and divided black marginal marks on the forewing. The abdominal features are diagnostic.

Holotype G. Muzium BRUNEI, Ulu Temburong Expedition, LP 298, Alt. 300m, 28th Sept-Oct 1978, m.v. light, (Jaya/Sutton), BM notodontid slide 1949.

Geographical range. Borneo.

Habitat preference. The only specimen was taken in lowland dipterocarp forest.

Phycidopsis albovittata Hampson (Part 4: p. 27). Indian Subregion to Taiwan and Sundaland, Palawan, Sulawesi, also Iriomote Is. (Lowland). Note 269. Note 269. Schintlmeister (1993) gave formal descriptions of Phycidopsis albovittata ssp. sundana Schintlmeister (Sundaland) and ssp. sulawesiana Schintlmeister (Sulawesi), following up on observations of genitalia differences made in Part 4. He also described P. philippinica Schintlmeister from the Philippines. S & P indicated the more extensive range noted here.

Brykia horsfieldi Moore (Part 4: p. 28). S. Thailand (S & P), Sundaland, Palawan. Lowland forest.

Brykia samarinda Kiriakoff (Part 4: p. 28). Borneo, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia (B). Lowland forest.

Ortholomia besida Schintlmeister (Part 4: p. 29, as Besida xylinata; Schintlmeister, 1994b: 219). Borneo, Sumatra. Lowland forest. Note 270. Note 270. Holloway (1987a) discovered that the original concept of Besida xylinata Walker was a complex and that the Bornean species was undescribed. This has now been rectified by Schintlmeister (1994b), who has recorded and described the species from Sumatra. Schintlmeister (1993, 1994b) listed true B. xylinata (Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra, Java) as from Palawan, so it may prove to occur also in Borneo. S & P also formalized the relationship noted in a cladogram by Holloway (1987) of Besida Walker to Ortholomia Felder by synonymy of the former to the latter.

Ortholomia xylinata Walker (Schintlmeister & Lourens, 2010). Borneo, Sumatra, Philippines. No precise habitat data. Note 271. Note 271. Schintlmeister (1994b: 210) recorded a Philippines (including Palawan) species attributed to O. vinvalva Schaus from Borneo (material in his collection). However, he did not tabulate it then for Palawan, despite recording it from there previously (Schintlmeister (1993: 116). He has since confirmed (pers. comm.) that it does occur in Palawan. In the figures in Schintlmeister (1993: 156), the illustrations for this concept of vinvalva and for xylinata were transposed. Schintlmeister & Lourens (2010) have now placed vinvalva as synonym of xylinata Walker, having examined the genitalia of the holotype (USNM). The Philippines species formerly attributed to vinvalva is described by them as O. osica Schintlmeister & Lourens (2010).

Niganda pudens Schintlmeister (S & P). S. Thailand, Borneo. (Lower montane). Note 272. Note 272. This species of Niganda Moore was described by Schintlmeister in S & P from material taken between 800m and 1100m in Borneo and a specimen from the lowlands of S. Thailand. The genus is new for Borneo, though three species are known from Peninsular Malaysia, one extending to Sumatra (Schintlmeister, 1994b). The genus was placed in the Gargetta‑group by Schintlmeister (1991 [1992]) and is therefore listed here within the Dudusinae sequence.

Archigargetta viridigrisea Hampson (Part 4: p. 29). Indian Subregion to Sundaland, the Lesser Sunda Is., Palawan and Sulawesi. (Lowland).

Blakeia marmorata Kiriakoff (Part 4: p. 31). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. Lowland forest.

Sphetta bornea Holloway (Part 12, p. 209). Endemic. (Lowland to upper montane).

Gangarides splendidus Schintlmeister (Part 4: p. 31; as rosea). N. E. Himalaya, Sundaland, Sulawesi, S. Moluccas. Lowland forest. Note 273. Note 273. A trio of closely related species of Gangarides, rosea Walker, brunneus Schintlmeister and splendidus Schintlmeister, occurs in southeast Asia, particularly Sundaland, differing in subtle features of facies and male genitalia as illustrated by Schintlmeister (1994b) and S & P. There is also a fourth species, vittipalpis Walker (= irregularis Schintlmeister), externally similar, but with greater differences in the male genitalia, also occurring in Sumatra (Schintlmeister, 1994b), extending down from the Himalaya and Indochina. S & P list all four as occurring in Sundaland but do not specify which occurs in Borneo, though restricted brunneus to Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia and S. Thailand. On the other hand, splendidus ranges from S. Thailand to Sundaland, the Lesser Sundas, Sulawesi and the Moluccas, and is the species illustrated in Part 4. The clearest feature distinguishing the three that can probably be assessed without dissection is the shape of the distal margin of the male eighth sternite: squared in splendidus; bidentate in rosea; shallowly convex in brunneus. Kobayashi & Kishida (2008b) provided a checklist for the genus and described a new species, wallacei, from Sulawesi and Seram.

Gangarides rosea Walker (p. 351; confirmation of presence). N. India through Burma and Indochina to Sundaland, including Palawan. (Montane). Note 274. Note 274. Schintlmeister (1993) recorded rosea from Palawan as well as Borneo, but did not tabulate it for Borneo in his Sundanian checklist (Schintlmeister, 1994b). S & P recorded it generally from Sundaland. It does in fact occur in Borneo, as A. Schintlmeister (pers. comm.) has confirmed the identity of a specimen from 1500m on G. Trus Madi in Sabah. The specific epithet rosea is with original orthography here but was listed by Schintlmeister (1994b) as roseus.

Gangarides >vardena Swinhoe (Part 4: p. 32). Indian Subregion, Indochina (S & P), Sundaland. Lowland forest. Note 275. Note 275. Schintlmeister (1994b) omitted Borneo from the range of G. vardena without explanation, though this must have been a lapsus, as it is clear (S & P) that the type locality is Borneo.

Gangarides gigantea Druce (Part 4: p. 33, under Euhampsonia). Sundaland, New Guinea. Lowland forest. Note 276. Note 276. Sugi (1994: Tyô to Ga45: 118) transferred gigantea from Euhampsonia to Gangarides.

Euhampsonia roepkei Holloway (Part 4: p. 32). S. Burma, Sundaland, Palawan. Lowland to upper montane forest. Note 277. Note 277. A specimen of Euhampsonia roepkei from Java is in the Muzium Zoologicum Bogoriense. S & P (2007) noted that the related E. serratifera Sugi (S. China, Indochina, Thailand, Burma) meets roepkei in the south of Burma.

Cerasana >anceps Walker (Part 4: p. 34). Sundaland (except Java), Palawan, Balabac. (Lowland forest). Note 278. Note 278. Schintlmeister (2004a) described Cerasana anceps ssp. ursulae from S. Thailand and Peninsular Malaysia and ssp. butzi from Palawan. He also recorded the nominotypical race from Sumatra and the archipelago to the west of Sumatra. However, the type of lutea Pagenstecher, now located by A. Schintlmeister (see Note 279), has proved to be conspecific with C. anceps and therefore a senior synonym of the Palawan ssp. butzi Schintlmeister (Schintlmeister & Lourens, 2010).

Cerasana pagenstecheri Schintlmeister & Lourens (Part 4: p. 97, as lutea Pagenstecher). S. Thailand, S. Vietnam, Sundaland, Palawan. (Lowland). Note 279. Note 279. The identity of C. lutea has been uncertain for some time, and Schintlmeister (1993, 1994b) placed it tentatively as a synonym of anceps. He later (Schintlmeister, 2004a) made an extensive but initially unsuccessful search for the type material and concluded that the pragmatic solution would be to apply the name to the small yellowish species as suggested in Part 4. He also recorded it from Vietnam, Thailand (S & P) and (1994b) in Sumatra. The establishment of the status of lutea (see Note 278) has meant that application of the name of lutea to this yellow species is incorrect, requiring its description as a new species, C. >pagenstecheri Schintlmeister & Lourens (2010), with ssp. lechneri Schintlmeister & Lourens (2010) in S. Thailand and S. Vietnam.

Cerasana alleni Holloway (Part 4: p. 98). Endemic. (Lowland).

Phalera javana Moore (Part 4: p. 34). Sundaland. Lowland forest.

Phalera acutoides Holloway (Part 4: p. 35). Sundaland, Philippines (Mindanao) (Schintlmeister, 1993). (Lowland forest). Note 280. Note 280. Phalera acutoides has only been recorded from Mindanao in the Philippines by Schintlmeister & Lourens (2010). The similar Sumatran species, P. phillipae Holloway & Bender, flies with it in Mindanao and has also been recorded from Palawan by Schintlmeister & Lourens, who placed lacrima Kobayashi & Kishida as a synonym. It is probable that phillipae will also be found in Borneo. It has a yellowish (cf. brownish) apical patch to the forewing that differs in shape from that of acutoides as noted in the original description. The fine black fasciation of the medial area is somewhat more transverse, less oblique. The antemedial meets the dorsum obliquely rather than at right-angles. The hindwings are slightly paler. In the male genitalia the socii are not distinctly bifid, having only a vestigial dorsal process, and the costal process of the valve is larger.

Phalera grotei Moore (Part 4: p. 36). Indian Subregion, Sundaland, Palawan. (Lowland). Note 281. Note 281. Kobayashi & Kishida (2007) described a further member of the Phalera grotei group (Holloway, 1982), P. longa Kobayashi & Kishida, from Luzon in the Philippines, distinguishing it from surigaona Schaus, which they considered to be restricted to Mindanao.

Phalera sundana Holloway (Part 4: p. 36). S. Thailand, S.E. China (S & P), Sundaland, Philippines. Lowland forest.

Phalera styx Holloway (Part 4: p. 37). Endemic. Lowland forest. Note 282. Note 282. The undescribed Sulawesi member of the Erconholda Kiriakoff group of Phalera that was referred to by Holloway (1987) was described as P. >sugii Kobayashi & Kishida (2007). It also occurs in Seram as ssp. seramica Kobayashi & Kishida (2007).

Phalera banksi Holloway (Part 4: p. 38). Sundaland. (?Montane).

Antiphalera sumatrana Kiriakoff (Part 4: p. 38). S. Thailand (S & P), Sundaland, Palawan. Upper montane forest.

Snellenita divaricata Gaede (Part 4: p. 39). N. E. Himalaya, S.W. China to Sundaland, Palawan. (Lowland).

Ambadra rafflesi Moore (Part 4: p. 40). Sundaland, Wallacea. Lowland, possibly restricted to open habitats. Note 283. Note 283. Schintlmeister (1994b: 221) noted wide variation in features of the male genitalia of Ambadra rafflesi and suggested that a species complex might be involved. He treated Ambadra as a good genus in this work and in S & P (2007), but earlier (Schintlmeister 1993: 189) placed it as a subgenus of Turnaca Walker.

Ambadra sp. 1244 (p. 352, Plate 7). Endemic. (Mangrove). Note 284. Note 284. Ambadra sp. 1244 (Plate 7). A single male Ambadra with unusual forewing facies was taken in an area of mangrove from a boat in the Sungei Kibi, Bay of Brunei, by Major T.P.G. Helps in 1984. The forewing is a uniform pale grey that grades slightly darker towards the dorsum and in three slight wedges on the posterior two thirds of the distal margin. The hindwing is a uniform reddish brown as in other species of the genus; this also darkens towards the dorsum. The genitalia (BM notodontid slide 1244) are as in A. rafflesi Moore, and this specimen may well be an extreme variant of this variable species. Further sampling in mangrove could yield more material.

Ambadra melanostriga Schintlmeister (Part 4: p. 41, as suriga Schaus). Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Borneo. Lowland. Note 285. Note 285. The identity of A. suriga Schaus (Philippines: Mindanao) has been problematic for some time and it is probable that further clarification may be necessary. Schintlmeister (1993) identified material from Mindanao as suriga and related a new species, sibena Schintlmeister, to it, noting differences in the male antennae and genitalia, but did not illustrate the latter. It is clear that he had not examined type material of suriga (in USNM), as this is indicated by S & P (2007: 66). The male genitalia of the holotype of suriga are illustrated in Fig 94, and bear a close resemblance to those illustrated for the species by Schintlmeister (1994b: plate 3, fig 7). Schintlmeister (1994b) is probably correct in stating that the species illustrated as suriga in Part 4 is not that species. The blunt, rather bilobed apex to the uncus (seen also in four further Bornean males dissected; these had the valve costa varying from slightly straight to shallowly convex, and the aedeagus apex was bifid in two) and its basal features appear closest to his Sumatran species, melanostriga Schintlmeister (also in Peninsular Malaysia, agreeing in facies and male genitalia: slide 1953), though the facies is more as in the species he illustrated as suriga. However, he has subsequently (S & P) placed melanostriga as a synonym of suriga, which does not solve the problem of the identity of the Bornean species! This is therefore placed here tentatively under melanostriga Schintlmeister, stat. rev., with a recommendation that molecular studies such as CO1 barcoding are undertaken on the complex. See also the note on montana Holloway below, and Holloway (1987), who revived celebensis Roepke from Sulawesi, where two species of the complex occur. Holloway (1982) illustrated a Peninsular Malaysian species of this facies type as stigmatica Gaede (India). This would appear to be A. >modesta Schintlmeister (S.E. China, Hainan, Thailand, S. Burma, Peninsular Malaysia) with ssp. andamana Schintlmeister in the Andaman Is. (S & P, 2007). A new Bornean species related to modesta is described in Note 287. The male genitalia of the holotype of stigmatica are illustrated in Fig 97. Schintlmeister & Lourens (2010) have recorded six species of Ambadra from the Philippines, all endemic except for suriga.

Ambadra montana Holloway stat. rev. (Part 4: p. 41). Endemic. Upper montane forest. Note 286. Note 286. Given the uncertainty of the identity of A. suriga Schaus discussed above, the synonymy of montana with suriga proposed by Schintlmeister (1994b: 221) appears precipitate. It is reversed here, stat. rev., for the following reasons. The subbasal part of the dorsal margin of the forewing in montana is distinctly bowed, whereas in material illustrated as suriga by Schintlmeister (1994b) the curvature is very much shallower and, as indicated above, a good match for the genitalia of the holotype of suriga (Fig 94). Also the forewing fasciation of montana is distinctly more oblique. The red line immediately next to the pale discal mark meets the dorsum more or less in line with the axis of the discal mark in the Sumatran suriga specimen of Schintlmeister (1994b: plate 3: 12) but extends into the subbasal marginal bulge in montana. In fact the facies of the suriga specimen illustrated by Schintlmeister (1994b) appears very similar to that illustrated as suriga in Part 4 (fig 37). As stated in the original description (Holloway, 1982), the uncus in montana is very long and strongly curved at the apex. It is more extreme in these features than in the suriga male illustrated by Schintlmeister (1994b) mentioned in the previous note which is close in appearance to the original illustration by Kiriakoff (1962) of the genitalia of the suriga holotype. The genitalia illustrated by S & P (2007: fig 48) as Bornean suriga are of montana. These show a further distinctive feature in montana: the costa of the valve is marginally sinuous because of a marked swelling over the basal half; the costa in suriga is of even width, and the margin varies from concave to convex but is never sinuous.

Ambadra gracilissp. n. (p. 353, Plate 7, Fig 95). Endemic. (Lowland). Note 287. Note 287. Ambadra gracilis sp. n. (Plate 7, Fig 95) G 15mm. The size of this species is as in the suriga Schaus complex (see Note 275), but the forewings are distinctly narrower, lack a pale discal mark and have no particularly dark longitudinal streaks in the marginal zone. There are three darker patches set obliquely and on a slightly obtuse angle in the antemedial position. The male genitalia have rather narrow valves compared to the species referred to suriga in Borneo. The uncus and socii are closer to, but shorter than, those of modesta Schintlmeister (S & P, 2007; this is the species from Peninsular Malaysia identified as stigmatica Gaede by Holloway (1982)), as is the strong curvature of the aedeagus, though this is distinctly upturned (straight in modesta) and bifid at the apex in gracilis. The valves are narrower, however, and the vinculum is distally thickened. The sternite has longer apodemes, and its two central processes are more widely separated.

Holotype G. Baram distr. SARAWAK (Chas. Hose), BM notodontid alide 1947.

Taxonomic note. A. stigmatica Gaede (India) is also related (holotype male genitalia illustrated in Fig 97), and, with modesta and gracilis, completes an allopatric array of three species.

Tensha postobscura Holloway (Part 4: p. 42). Borneo, Sumatra. Upper montane forest.

Turnaca punctata Holloway (Part 4: p. 43, now includes altipunctata Holloway). Sundaland. Lowland to upper montane forest. Note 288. Note 288. Schintlmeister (1994b) dissected a more extensive series of specimens of Turnaca punctata and T. altipunctata and found the variation extended over the range of the characteristics used to distinguish the two and therefore brought them into synonymy. This is followed here, with the rider that this may also apply to the Sumatran T. barlowi Schintlmeister (1994b: 220). The male genitalia of barlowi as illustrated are obviously of the punctata type, though the original description makes comparison only with spinifera Holloway; the arrangement of uncus and socii, and the size and accessory spine of the valves in spinifera Holloway are totally different from those of barlowi and punctata.

Turnaca spinifera Holloway (Part 4: p. 44). Borneo, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia (B). (Lowland). Note 289. Note 289. Bender (1985) recorded T. spinifera in Sumatra.

Saliocleta armata Kiriakoff (Part 4: p. 44, under Ceira). Borneo, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia (B), Palawan. (Lowland). Note 290. Note 290. Schintlmeister (1991 [1992]) placed Norraca Moore, Oraura Kiriakoff and Norracana Kiriakoff as synonyms of Ceira Walker on grounds of shared features of facies and genitalia. Subsequently (S & P), he subordinated these to Saliocleta Walker, but Schintlmeister & Lourens (2010) have now revived Oraura; see also Note 294. Apart from the species listed, S. widagdoi Schintlmeister may prove to occur in Borneo, as it has now been recorded extensively in S.E. Asia from N. Burma and Hainan to Sundaland and Palawan (S & P). However, no records have been made so far (A. Schintlmeister, pers. comm.).

Saliocleta lativitta Walker (Part 4: p. 46, under Norraca). Sundaland. (Lowland to 1200m, possibly in open habitats).

Saliocleta nonagrioides Walker (Part 4: p. 47, as Norraca sabulosa Kiriakoff). Borneo, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia (B). (Upper montane forest). Note 291. Note 291. Schintlmeister & Lourens (2010) have cleared up some confusion over the identity of S. nonagrioides, the generic type species, relating the holotype female (OUMNH) to S. sabulosa Kiriakoff (which becomes a junior synonym) on the basis of extensive material from Sundaland, rather than to the males associated with the name in Part 4 and by S & P (see Note 293) for Thailand. The subspecies luzonica Schintlmeister of sabulosa was placed as a synonym of S. odrana Schaus by Schintlmeister & Lourens (2010); see Note 292.

Saliocleta sordida Roepke (Part 4: p. 47, under Norraca). Sundaland, Palawan. (Lowland to 1200m, possibly in open habitats). Note 292. Note 292. Schintlmeister & Lourens (2010) recorded S. sordida from Palawan and noted that specimens from there and Borneo have paler and more reddish hindwings than those from Sumatra, Java and Bali. They also considered that S. >odrana Schaus (= luzonica Schintlmeister) from the Philippines and Sulawesi (ssp. celebica Kiriakoff) is the sister-species of sordida.

Saliocleta commutatis Schintlmeister & Lourens (Part 4: p. 44, as nonagrioides). Thailand, Borneo, Philippines. (Lowland). Note 293. Note 293. Schintlmeister & Lourens (2010) have described the species confused with nonagrioides in Part 4 (Note 291) as S. commutatis Schintlmeister & Lourens. It is known from Thailand and Borneo, and extends into the Philippines as far as Palawan, Taui Taui and Mindanao. It is illustrated in part 4 (plate 4: 7; fig 44). The confusion of males of this species with nonagrioides stems from Kiriakoff (1968: fig 65) who illustrated male genitalia of commutatis as nonagrioides.

Saliocleta nannion Kiriakoff (Part 4: p. 45). Borneo, Sumatra. (Lowland).

Oraura longipennis Moore (new record). Oriental tropics to Sundaland and Philippines. (Lowland forest). Note 294. Note 294. The author has been notified on two occasions of the occurrence of Oraura ordgara in Borneo, predictable in view of the disjunction of previous records in Palawan (type locality) and Sumatra (Bender, 1985). It occurs also in the main Philippines archipelago (Schintlmeister, 1993). Dr Chey Vun Khen recorded it in the Deramokot Forest Reserve, Sabah, and Catherine Karim recorded it in the Bau limestone area of Sarawak. This taxon and uncinata Semper have been synonymised with O. longipennis Moore by Schintlmeister & Lourens (2010), a taxon described from Peninsular Malaysia that (Schintlmeister, 1994b) also flies in Sumatra and the Philippines and extends to Thailand, Indochina, India and China (see also Schintlmeister, 1991 [1992]; S & P).

Periergos hunyada Swinhoe (new record, A. Schintlmeister pers. comm.). Vietnam, Cambodia, S. Thailand, Sundaland, Philippines. (Montane). Note 295. Note 295. Schintlmeister (1991 [1992]) incorporated Hunyada Kiriakoff and Eupydna Fletcher within an expanded concept of Periergos Kiriakoff. S & P recorded P. hunyada Swinhoe from Vietnam, Cambodia, S. Thailand, and “widely distributed” in Sundaland and the Philippines. A. Schintlmeister (pers. comm.) has recorded a male from a montane locality near Loksado in S. Kalimantan. Externally this species and spinosa are very similar, but the latter has a swollen spined base to the upper arm of the valve rather than it being narrow throughout. S & P and Schintlmeister & Lourens (2010) included venosa Kiriakoff (Peninsular Malaysia) and the Philippines taxa marconia Schaus and callista West as synonyms of hunyada.

Periergos testacea Walker (Part 4: p. 45, under Hunyada). N. E. Himalaya, Sundaland. (Lowland).

Periergos spinosa Holloway (Part 4: p. 46, under Hunyada). N. Thailand, Borneo, Sumatra, Palawan (Schintlmeister, 1994b; S & P). (Lowland). Note 296. Note 296. The expanded range of Periergos spinosa follows S & P. However, of the two singletons recorded from N. Thailand, it is notable that one is from Sansai, a suspect locality. See also Notes 57, 66, 401, 522 and p. 371.

Liparopsis sundana Holloway (Part 4: p. 48). Sundaland. Lowland forest.

Liparopsis barlowi Holloway (Holloway & Bender, 1985: 110; Fig 98). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia. (Lowland forest on limestone). Note 297. Note 297. Only the male genitalia of Liparopsis barlowi were illustrated in the original description. Bornean material of barlowi consists of two males taken at 250m, in forest on limestone on the lower slopes of G. Api in Sarawak. The species differs from sundana in having the hindwing almost completely white; on the forewing, the reddish brown colour is restricted to basal to the oblique antemedial. The male genitalia are illustrated again here in Fig 98.

Liparopsis dierli R. & E. Bender (new record, Fig 99). Borneo, Sumatra. (Coastal to montane). Note 298. Note 298. Three specimens of L. dierli R. & E. Bender have been taken in Brunei, two in disturbed coastal forest at Seria and one at 1618m in montane forest on Bukit Retak. Two more (in RMNH, Leiden; E.J. van Nieukerken, pers. comm.) have been taken in the G. Lumut Protection Forest in the Pasir district of S. Kalimantan, one at 100m in riverine forest and the other at 400m at the edge of selectively logged lowland forest. The facies is similar to that of L. sundana, but the forewing is more contrasted between white and reddish brown, and there is no white within the brown on the dorsum postmedially. The species is illustrated by Bender (1985, Plate 11: 18), as are the male genitalia, reproduced also here in Fig 99.

Pantanopsis diehli Kiriakoff (Part 4: p. 49). Cambodia, Thailand, Sundaland, Philippines (S & P, 2007). Lowland forest; common on limestone.

Kamalia malaysiana Holloway (Part 4: p. 49, under Cerura). C. Thailand, Sundaland, Palawan, Lesser Sundas. Lowland forest. Note 299. Note 299. Kamalia Koçak & Kemal (= Paracerura Schintlmeister, 2002) contains the group of Cerura with striking black and white forewings reviewed initially by Holloway (1982) and used subsequently (e.g. Holloway, 1987a) as one of several examples of an allopatric array of species extending through the Indo‑Australian tropics (Holloway & Nielsen, 1999 [1998]). Schintlmeister (2002) has filled in some of the gaps in this array with two species from the Philippines (rosea Schintlmeister and robusta Schintlmeister, sympatric) and one from Timor (timorensis Kiriakoff). He has extended the range of malaysiana to S. Thailand, with distinct subspecies in Palawan (palawana Schintlmeister) and from Java through the Lesser Sundas to Sumbawa (jakli Schintlmeister). Nässig (1988) has published an account of the larva of malaysiana. Paracerura proved to be a homonym; Kamalia is the replacement name.

Neocerura liturata Walker (Part 4: p. 50). Oriental tropics to Sundaland, Philippines (Schintlmeister, 1993). (Lowland and lower montane forest on limestone).

Syntypistis nigribasalis Wileman (Part 4: p. 50, under Quadricalcarifera). S. China, Taiwan; S.E. Asia, Peninsular Malaysia (B), Borneo, Sumatra, Philippines (Schintlmeister, 1993), Sulawesi. Upper montane forest. Note 300. Note 300. Edwards in Nielsen et al. (1996) established Syntypistis Turner (type species chloropasta Turner, Australia) as the oldest name applicable to the diverse Indo-Australian genus that has in the past generally been known as Quadricalcarifera Strand. The range extension to S. nigribasalis is from S & P.

Syntypistis alleni Holloway (Part 4: p. 51, under Quadricalcarifera). Endemic. Upper montane forest.

Syntypistis charistera West (Part 4: p. 51, under Quadricalcarifera). S. Indochina, Thailand, Sundaland, Wallacea. Lowland to upper montane forest. Note 301. Note 301. Holloway (1987a) extended the range of S. charistera to Sulawesi (celebensis Roepke, syn. rhypara Kiriakoff), and Schintlmeister (1994b: 225) confirmed bambusicola Kiriakoff (referable to Bornean populations at subspecific level according to A. Schintlmeister (pers. comm.)) as a further synonym as suggested in Part 4. S & P recorded the species in southern parts of Thailand, Cambodia and Vietnam.

Syntypistis comatus Leech (Part 4: p. 52, as viridimaculata Matsumura, under Quadricalcarifera). N. E. Himalaya to Taiwan, Borneo, Sumatra, Philippines. Upper montane forest. Note 302. Note 302. em>S. viridimaculata Matsumura was placed as a synonym of S. comatus Leech (S. China) by Schintlmeister (1991 [1992]: 96) but cited incorrectly as viridimacula (also in Schintlmeister (1994b), S & P), but see Sugi (1979) for correct spelling. Schintlmeister (1994b) included as synonyms also malayana Nakamura (see Note 305 with reference to confusion through transposition of illustrations in the original description), t anakai Nakamura (Philippines) and trioculata Holloway (see Note 304). In the Philippines most islands are populated by the typical race, but ssp. mananangai Schintlmeister & Lourens (2010) occurs in Mindanao.

Syntypistis viridipicta Wileman (new record, Plate 7, Fig 96). India to S. China, Taiwan and through Indochina to Sumatra and Borneo. Lowland. Note 303. Note 303. S. viridipicta Wileman (Plate 7) is similar to comatus in male genitalia (Fig 96; Part 4, with reference to the synonym eusebia Kiriakoff) but has a more uniform green forewing. Schintlmeister (1991 [1992], 1994b) has listed many taxa as synonyms of viridipicta (see also Holloway & Bender, 1985: 105; S & P, 2007): chlorotricha Hampson; doloka Kiriakoff; eusebia Kiriakoff; kusukusuana Matsumura; lineata Okano; marginalis Matsumura; medioviridis Kiriakoff; viridigutta Kiriakoff. Schintlmeister (1994b: 224) indicated that many specimens illustrated by Bender (1985) under other names were in fact viridipicta. A single specimen (in FRC, Sepilok) from Borneo has been seen, taken in the vicinity of Ranau in the lowlands of Sabah.

Syntypistis trioculata Holloway stat. rev. (Part 4: p. 53, under Quadricalcarifera). Endemic. Upper montane forest. Note 304. Note 304. Schintlmeister (1994b: 226) placed both S. viridimaculata (= bioculata Kiriakoff) and S. trioculata Holloway as synonyms of S. comatus (see Note 302), which is puzzling, as it is clear from Holloway (1976: figs 364, 365) and Part 4 that these taxa are distinct in both facies and male genitalia, and therefore cannot be synonyms of any one senior name! The male genitalia of trioculata are closer to those of the Chinese species S. >subgriseoviridis Kiriakoff as illustrated in fig. 260 of Schintlmeister (1991 [1992]) next to those of comatus (fig 261), but the valve is more strongly flexed inwards centrally in trioculata than in subgriseoviridis. Therefore S. >trioculata Holloway is a good species, stat. rev.

Syntypistis umbrosa Matsumura (Part 4: p. 53, as malayana Nakamura, under Quadricalcarifera). Himalaya to Taiwan and Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia, Wallacea. Upper (and lower) montane forest. Note 305. Note 305. In Part 4, the name malayana was raised to specific status, as the species as illustrated in the original description appeared unrelated to S. fasciata Moore, of which it had apparently been described as a subspecies, and it was suggested it might be related to a mainland Asian taxon, with umbrosa Matsumura (Taiwan) suggested as a possible candidate. This was formally confirmed by Sugi (1992), who pointed out that the erroneous transposition of illustrations of malayana and hasegawai Nakamura in the original descriptions had caused confusion when the species were discussed in Part 4. Schintlmeister (S & P: 132-133) did not refer to the paper by Sugi when discussing this situation. Sugi (1992) stated that there were related populations in the Philippines and Sulawesi. Schintlmeister (1993) recorded the species from Palawan.

Syntypistis palladina Schaus (Part 4: p. 54, under Quadricalcarifera). S. Thailand (S & P), Borneo, Sumatra, Wallacea. Lowland forest. Note 306. Note 306. Schintlmeister (1994b: 225) clarified confusion in Bender (1985) over the identity of palladina. He has suggested (S & P) that Sundanian material differs from typical S. palladina (Philippines) in several features of the male abdomen; the name viridimargo Kiriakoff is available for the Sundanian populations. Holloway (1987a) and Sugi (1992) commented on the relationship with S. >alboviridis Kiriakoff from Sulawesi. Schintlmeister & Lourens (2010) noted a senior secondary homonym in Syntypistis for alboviridis by Rothschild, and established kiriakoffi Schintlmeister & Lourens as a replacement name for this Sulawesi taxon.

Syntypistis triguttata Kiriakoff (Part 4: p 54, under Quadricalcarifera). Sundaland. Upper montane forest. Note 307. Note 307. Schintlmeister (1994b: 224) clarified confusion in Bender (1985) over the identity of S. triguttata.

Syntypistis pallidifascia Hampson (Part 4: p. 57, under Vaneeckeia). N. E. Himalaya to Taiwan and Sundaland, Philippines, Sulawesi, Buru, New Guinea. (Upper montane forest). Note 308. Note 308. The genus Vaneeckeia Kiriakoff (Watson et al., 1980; not Vaneeckia as in Schintlmeister (1991 [1992], 1993, 1994b, S & P)) was subordinated to Syntypistis by Schintlmeister (S & P). Holloway (1987a) recorded pallidifascia from Sulawesi, together with a new species, then undescribed. The Philippines island of Mindoro has a subspecies distinct from the typical race on other islands: juttamariae Schintlmeister & Lourens (2010)

Parasinga lichenina Butler (Part 4: p 55). Thailand (S & P), Sundaland, Palawan, Sulawesi. Lowland to upper montane forest. Note 309. Note 309. Parasinga lichenina is only known from Palawan in the Philippines: ssp. penatus Schintlmeister & Lourens (2010). The main islands are populated by P. viridescens Schintlmeister (1993).

Parasinga insufficiens Gaede (Part 4: p. 56). Borneo, Sumatra. Lowland forest.

Parasinga cinerascens Kiriakoff (Part 4: p. 56). Sundaland. Lowland (to upper montane) forest.

Parasinga harmani Holloway (Part 4: p 57). Borneo, Sumatra. (Lowland).

Stauropus alternus Walker (Part 4: p. 58, under Neostauropus). N.E. Himalaya, S. China to Sundaland, Wallacea. (Lowland forest). Note 310. Note 310. Schintlmeister (1991 [1992] and subsequently) treated Neostauropus Kiriakoff as a synonym of Stauropus Germar. He reviewed the status of alternus and its races, briefly touched on in Part 4. He considered the disjunct albescens Moore (S. India, Sri Lanka) to be a subspecies of alternus rather than distinct, and recorded the nominotypical race from the Himalaya to Taiwan, the Ryukyus, Indochina and the Andamans. In Sundaland and the Philippines he recorded ssp. brunneus Schintlmeister, and, as it is found to be sympatric with nephodes West in the Philippines (Schintlmeister, 1993), nephodes was revived as a good species; ssp. niasicus Schintlmeister occurs in Nias, From Java to Flores flies ssp. hofmannae Schintlmeister, and in Sulawesi there is ssp. sulawesianus Schintlmeister. The most easterly population is ssp. melastomatis Felder from S. Moluccas. Leong (2008b) has illustrated the larva in Singapore.

Stauropus major van Eecke (Part 4: p. 59). Indian Subregion, S. China to Sundaland, Palawan, Lesser Sundas. Lowland forest. Note 311. Note 311. Schintlmeister (2003, S & P) extended the range of S. major through Sundaland to the Lesser Sundas and north to the whole Indian Subregion and the extreme south of China.

Stauropus virescens Moore (Part 4: p. 59, under Benbowia). Himalaya to S. China, Taiwan and Sundaland, Palawan. Lowland to upper montane forest. Note 312. Note 312. S & P included Benbowia as a subgenus of Stauropus. They extended the range of virescens as indicated, and illustrated two further species found in the Southeast Asian mainland, both described by Schintlmeister (1997) from Vietnam: camilla Schintlmeister (see also the next note); callista Schintlmeister.

Stauropus kiriakoffi Holloway (Part 4: p. 60, under Benbowia). Endemic. Lowland to upper montane forest. Note 313. Note 313. Schintlmeister (1994b) recorded S. elisabethae Dierl from Borneo (also Malaysia, Sumatra), but not kiriakoffi, without comment. However, images sent to the author (A. Schintlmeister, in litt.) of genitalia of the species he identified in Borneo as elisabethae are those of kiriakoffi, and show some relationship to S. camilla Schintlmeister (1997) from mainland Asia (S & P: 124) in the serrate, bilobed margin to the eighth tergite, the similarly serrate foliose processes at the base of the valves of the genitalia, and the prominent subapical knob to the main part of the valve. In elisabethae (Dierl, 1981, Entomofauna 2: 169) the margin of the eighth tergite is entire, smooth, the foliose processes at the base of the valve are more as in virescens, and the apical part of the processes in elisabethae are slender, outcurved and of even width throughout, rather than apically expanded. Dierl (1981) illustrated the genitalia of a paratype, so the holotype (in ZSM, Munich) should also be dissected to confirm conspecificity. Schintlmeister (1993) described S. orientalis Schintlmeister from the Philippines.

Netria viridescens Walker (Part 4: p. 61). Oriental tropics to Sundaland. (Lowland) to upper montane forest. Note 314. Note 314. Schintlmeister (1994b, 2006) discovered that the large, apparently widespread species Netria viridescens Walker was in fact a major complex of ten species, with three species flying in Borneo. They are all very similar in facies, and best distinguished from features of the male eighth segment and genitalia. One is true viridescens, which has a single, asymmetrically placed spine on the eighth tergite and a rounded apex to the corresponding tergite. The uncus has two robust digitate processes, the valves are relatively gently curved over the narrow apical part, the juxta is broad, and the saccus moderate in length. This is the species of which the genitalia were illustrated by Holloway (1976: fig 361). The typical race flies in Sundaland, with ssp. pallidabasis Schintlmeister in Palawan and ssp. continentalis Schintlmeister and ssp. suffusca Schintlmeister in mainland Asia, the last, in Yunnan and Burma, disrupting the continuity of the range of continentalis.

Netria multispinae Schintlmeister (Schintlmeister, 2004a). Himalaya to Taiwan, Indochina, Sumatra and Borneo. (Lowland to lower montane). Note 315. Note 315. The eighth sternite of N. multispinae has four spines apically, and the tergite is weakly and shallowly bifid. The uncus has the digitate processes longer, more slender, the valves are apically more strongly hooked, but the juxta and saccus are similar to those of viridescens. A distinct subspecies, nigrescens Schintlmeister, occurs in S. China. Records have been made from the lowlands to 1200m (Schintlmeister, 2006).

Netria carentis Schintlmeister (Schintlmeister, 2004a). Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Borneo. (Lowland to lower montane). Note 316. Note 316. The eighth sternite of N. carentis is unspined distally, but the tergite is tapering, bifid distally and deeply bilobed anteriorly. The uncus does not have conspicuous arms, the apical parts of the valves are more evenly tapered, shorter and more strongly curved than in viridescens, the juxta is much narrower than in the other two species and the saccus is distinctly longer. Much material has been taken at 1100m in the vicinity of Loksado in S. Kalimantan, but older material is from lowland localities such as Samarinda (Schintlmeister, 2006)

Somera viridifusca Walker (Part 4: p. 62). Oriental tropics to Wallacea. Upper montane forest. Note 317. Note 317. Schintlmeister (1993) described ssp. sumatrana for the Sundanian populations of Somera viridifusca (though noted variability in the male genitalia), ssp. luzonensis from the Philippines and ssp. celebica from Sulawesi.

Somera virens Dierl (Part 4: p. 62). Himalaya to Sundaland, Mindanao (Schintlmeister & Lourens, 2010). Lowland to upper montane forest. Note 318. Note 318. S & P stated that typical S. virens was restricted to Sundaland and that ssp. watsoni Schintlmeister was found over the rest of the mainland Asian range.

Stauroplitis annulata Gaede (Part 4: p. 63). Thailand, Borneo, Sumatra. Lowland forest. Note 319. Note 319. A separate subspecies, Stauroplitis annulata plumbalis Schintlmeister (S & P, 2007), flies in Thailand, but S & P noted no records of the species from Peninsular Malaysia.

Formofentonia orbifer Hampson (Part 4: p. 63). Himalaya, Taiwan, S.E. Asia, Sundaland, Philippines, Sulawesi (S & P). Lower and upper montane (and lowland) forest.

Higena indigofera Holloway (Part 4: p. 64, under Sagamora). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra. Lowland to upper montane forest. Note 320. Note 320. Holloway (1987a) placed Sagamora Kiriakoff as a synonym of Higena Matsumura, and noted two undescribed species from Sulawesi, possibly sister‑species. Schintlmeister (1993) described two new species, distincta from Sumatra (where umbrina Kiriakoff is also endemic), and similis (with sspp. luzonensis, mindorensis, cebuensis and mindanaensis; ssp. similis is from Palawan) in the Philippines. He recorded indigofera from Peninsular Malaysia, and Bender (1985) recorded it from Sumatra. Kobayashi & Kishida (2008a) described H. assimilis from Thailand, Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra and Java, bringing the Sumatran total for the genus to four. They described one of the Sulawesi species as H. anulata and provided a checklist the genus.

Medanella subterminalis Kiriakoff (Part 4: p. 64). N.E. Himalaya, Burma, Thailand (S & P, 2007), Sundaland, Palawan. (Lowland forest).

Omichlis dimorpha Kiriakoff (Part 4: p. 65). Borneo, Sumatra. Lowland to lower montane forest. Note 321. Note 321. Omichlis dimorpha and O. rufotincta Hampson (N.E. Himalaya, Burma) are still the most westerly representatives of the otherwise predominantly tropical Australasian genus. However, Holloway (1987a) noted a new species in Sulawesi, and Schintlmeister (1993) described two new species in the Philippines: similis from Palawan; diversa from Luzon and Mindanao. Schintlmeister & Lourens (2010) added samar Schintlmeister & Lourens from the island of Samar and described three further island races of diversa. None of these three species has the valve of the male genitalia ornamented as in dimorpha, having two or three short, broad processes rather than one longer slender one. H.S. Barlow (unpublished list, 2008) has recorded dimorpha from Peninsular Malaysia but this needs confirmation by dissection.

Epistauropus vinaceus Moore (Part 4: p. 39, as apiculatus Rothschild). N.E. Himalaya, Sundaland, Wallacea. Lowland forest. Note 322. Note 322. Epistauropus Gaede was placed as a synonym of Neodrymonia Matsumura by Holloway & Bender (1985: 105). Schintlmeister (1991 [1992]) added Formotensha Matsumura and Disparoides Nakamura as further generic synonyms. He subsequently (S & P, 2007) reviewed this decision and treated Epistauropus and Neodrymonia as distinct, but with Calyptronotum Roepke (a subgenus of Pseudofentonia Strand in Schintlmeister (1991 [1992])) and Pseudostauropus Gaede as subgenera of the former, with Formotensha treated as a good genus and Disparoides retained as a subgenus of Neodrymonia. However, there appears to be as little synapomorphy in features of the male abdomen amongst the genera now (S & P) brought together under Epistauropus as there was in the previous combinations, including the relationship between Pseudostauropus and Thaila Kiriakoff suggested in Part 4 (Thaila is placed as a synonym of Formotensha by S & P). The whole complex of genera noted above, together with Pseudofentonia Strand, Libido Bryk and Disparia Nagano, though probably generally related (many have a strong curved process from the base of the valve costa), requires rigorous cladistic analysis to try to elucidate relationships in the bewildering diversity of structure in the male eighth abdominal segment and genitalia (e.g. the homologies of the pair of bifurcate structures associated with the vinculum in Pseudostauropus). Therefore the treatment here will, as a temporary measure, revert as far as possible to original genera rather than maintaining what appear to be unsatisfactory combinations. S & P identified apiculatus as a synonym of Stauropus vinaceus Moore (N.E. Himalaya; as vinacaeus, repeated by Schintlmeister & Lourens (2010)).

Calyptronotum singapura Gaede (Part 4: p. 65). N.E. Himalaya to Hainan and Sundaland, Lesser Sundas, Palawan. Lowland to lower (and upper) montane forest. Note 323. Note 323. Holloway (1987) recorded a distinct subspecies of Calyptronotum singapura in Sulawesi and placed gualberta Schaus (Philippines) as another subspecies. Schintlmeister (1993) suggested that the latter might be a full synonym of singapura, but the type would need examination to confirm this. S & P have extended the range into mainland Asia and to the Lesser Sundas, but excluded representation in Wallacea. However, Kobayashi & Kishida (2009) concluded that singapura and gualberta were good species, and described the Sulawesi taxon as C. adustum Kobayashi & Kishida.

Pseudostauropus plagosus Gaede (Part 4: p. 66). Thailand, Cambodia, S. Burma, Palawan. (Lower and upper montane forest). Note 324. Note 324. The distribution of Pseudostauropus plagosus is extended into mainland Asia from Sumatra, Borneo and Palawan by ssp. haxairei Schintlmeister (S & P, 2007), extending from Peninsular Malaysia to S. Burma, Thailand and Cambodia. The subspecies is defined on differences in the bifurcate processes associated with the vinculum mentioned in Note 322.

Neodrymonia elisabethae Holloway & Bender (S & P). N.E. Himalaya to S. China and Sumatra and Borneo. Montane. Note 325. Note 325. S & P recorded Neodrymonia elisabethae from Borneo as well as extending the range northwards to the eastern Himalaya and southern China. This Bornean record is for a long series from 1600m at Loksado in S. Kalimantan (A. Schintlmeister, pers. comm.)

Disparia diluta Hampson (Part 4: p. 76, as sundana Roepke). N.E. Himalaya to Taiwan, Japan and Sundaland, Palawan. (Upper montane forest). Note 326. Note 326. Schintlmeister (1991 [1992], 1994) treated Disparia Nagano as a subgenus of Pseudofentonia, and placed sundana Roepke as a subspecies of diluta Hampson, suggested in Part 4 to be the closest relative of sundana, with variegata Wileman (Taiwan); variegata was also placed as a subspecies of diluta by Schintlmeister (1994b) together with the Chinese abraama Schaus and the Japanese sordida Wileman. The taxon diversipectinata Bryk (Burma), another potential synonym mentioned in Part 4, was included as synonym of diluta by S & P, who revived Disparia as a full genus. They also described the Bornean race of diluta as borneensis Schintlmeister and that from Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, S. Burma and S. Thailand as ssp. sumatrana Schintlmeister. These subspecies are based on minor differences in facies and the shape of the uncus, the valve apex and the aedeagus in the male genitalia.

Oxoia smaragdiplena Walker (Part 4: p. 67). N.E. Himalaya to Sundaland, Philippines. Lowland to upper montane forest. Note 327. Note 327. S & P noted a range for Oxoia smaragdiplena much more extensive in S.E. Asia.

Fusadonta albipuncta Gaede (Part 4: p. 67, under Peridea). Borneo, Sumatra, Palawan. Lower to upper montane forest, perhaps with preference for limestone. Note 328. Note 328. Schintlmeister & Lourens (2010) transferred albipuncta from Peridea Stephens to Fusadonta Matsumura (type species basilinea Wileman, Japan) and recorded it from Palawan.

Pheosiopsis diehli Kiriakoff (Part 4: p. 68, under Suzukiana). Sundaland. Upper montane forest. Note 329. Note 329. Suzukiana Sugi is now treated (Schintlmeister, 1991 [1992]) as a subgenus of Pheosiopsis Bryk as tentatively suggested in Part 4.

Pheosiopsis pallida Nakamura (Part 4: p. 68, under Suzukiana). Sundaland. Lower to upper montane forest.

Neopheosia fasciata Moore (Part 4: p. 69). Himalaya, China, Japan, Taiwan to Sundaland, Wallacea (S & P) and Buru. Lowland forest.

Allodonta (Hexafrenum)austrocollaris Holloway (Part 4: p 72). S. Burma, S. Thailand (S & P, 2007), Sundaland. Lowland forest. Note 330. Note 330. Schintlmeister (1993) described two species of Hexafrenum from the main archipelago of the Philippines, synthesina Schintlmeister and maternalis Schintlmeister. He also (Schintlmeister, 1994b) described a species externally similar to austrocollaris from Palawan, ferinus Schintlmeister. Schintlmeister & Lourens (2010) treated Hexafrenum as a subgenus of Allodonta Staudinger (type species tristis Staudinger = plebeja Oberthür, E. Siberia).

Allodonta (Hexafrenum)nigricollaris Holloway (Part 4: p. 70). Endemic. Upper montane forest.

Allodonta (Hexafrenum)muluensis Holloway (Part 4: p. 71). Endemic. (Upper montane forest).

Semidonta nigribasis Hampson (Part 4: p. 72, as insulicola Kiriakoff, underHyperaeschrella). Afghanistan, Indian Subregion to S. China and Sundaland, Palawan. Lowland forest. Note 331. Note 331. Schintlmeister & Lourens (2010) placed Hyperaeschrella as a synonym of Semidonta Staudinger (type species biloba Oberthür, E. Siberia). Schintlmeister (1994b: 229) placed insulicola and dentata Hampson (but (S & P) not kosemponica Strand) as synonyms of nigribasis Hampson, as he detected no differences in the male genitalia. Facies differences were noted in Part 4, but it appears that there can be great external variability in this, as Schintlmeister also placed the Sumatran hollowayi Bender as a synonym of producta Kiriakoff. The hollowayi form has not yet been recorded for Borneo, but material is limited. However, S & P recorded producta but not the hollowayi form for Thailand, and were unsure whether hollowayi was a form of producta or a separate taxon. Species of this group occur further east in the Philippines (familiaris Schintlmeister (1993), sororcula Schintlmeister & Lourens (2010)) and Sulawesi (occidentalis Schintlmeister (1993)).

Semidonta producta Kiriakoff (Part 4: p. 73, under Hyperaeschrella). S. Thailand, Borneo, Sumatra. (Lowland). Note 331. Note 331. Schintlmeister & Lourens (2010) placed Hyperaeschrella as a synonym of Semidonta Staudinger (type species biloba Oberthür, E. Siberia). Schintlmeister (1994b: 229) placed insulicola and dentata Hampson (but (S & P) not kosemponica Strand) as synonyms of nigribasis Hampson, as he detected no differences in the male genitalia. Facies differences were noted in Part 4, but it appears that there can be great external variability in this, as Schintlmeister also placed the Sumatran hollowayi Bender as a synonym of producta Kiriakoff. The hollowayi form has not yet been recorded for Borneo, but material is limited. However, S & P recorded producta but not the hollowayi form for Thailand, and were unsure whether hollowayi was a form of producta or a separate taxon. Species of this group occur further east in the Philippines (familiaris Schintlmeister (1993), sororcula Schintlmeister & Lourens (2010)) and Sulawesi (occidentalis Schintlmeister (1993)).

Fentonia sumatrana Kiriakoff (Part 4: p 74). S. Thailand, Sundaland. Lowland to lower montane forest.

Fentonia hollowayi Schintlmeister (Part 4: p. 75, as helena Kiriakoff; S & P: 157). Sundaland. Upper montane forest. Note 332. Note 332. S & P indicated that two species had been confused under Fentonia helena Kiriakoff. The Bornean species is not helena and was described as hollowayi Schintlmeister. It can be distinguished from both helena and sumatrana by longer rami in the bipectinate male antennae and, in the male abdomen, by a pucker, rather than a transverse flange, in the centre of the eighth sternite, by valves narrower over the distal part with a more prominent subbasal bulge on the costa, and by a more produced and sclerotised apex to the aedeagus. F. hollowayi occurs also in Peninsular Malaysia and Sumatra.

Fentonia bipunctus Rothschild (Part 4: p. 75). S. Burma, S. Thailand, Sundaland, Palawan, Balabac. Lowland forest; lower montane forest on limestone.

Fentonia talboti Gaede (Part 4: p. 75). Borneo, Sumatra. Upper montane forest. Note 333. Note 333. The F. >notodontina‑like material from Sumatra referred to in Part 4 was described as a subspecies of talboti, ingridae Holloway & Bender (1985: 107).

Notodontella ferrifusa Dudgeon (Part 4: p. 76, as nieuwenhuisi Roepke). Indian Subregion, S.E. Asia, Sundaland, Philippines (Schintlmeister & Lourens, 2010). (Lowland forest on limestone). Note 334. Note 334. S & P placed nieuwenhuisi as a synonym of Notodontella ferrifusa Dudgeon, having access to the extra material noted as needed in Part 4 to resolve the status of the two taxa. They also brought in nana Bryk as a further synonym as well as the genus of which it is type species, Podocryptula Bryk. They included a second species, viridinota Hampson, bringing the genera Chloroceramis Kiriakoff and Maguila Kiriakoff into synonymy. This second species occurs from the Himalaya through S.E. Asia to Sundaland, the Philippines (where maguila Schaus has been brought into synonymy by Schintlmeister & Lourens (2010)) and Sulawesi (see also Holloway, 1987a: 116), but no definite record for Borneo has been located.

Pseudohoplitis vernalis Gaede (Part 4: p. 77). Thailand, S. Yunnan, Sundaland, Lesser Sundas, Wallacea. Lowland forest. Note 335. Note 335. S & P added to the range of ssp. infuscata Gaede of Pseudohoplitis vernalis (typical ssp. from Sulawesi only) and suggested that the two taxa may be distinct species.

Chadisra calapana Semper (Part 4: p. 78, as luzonensis Kiriakoff). Sundaland, Wallacea. (Lowland, possibly mainly in open habitats). Note 336. Note 336. Holloway (1987a) made a preliminary assessment of groupings (as subgenera) in Chadisra Walker, with known species listed. Schintlmeister (1993, 1994b) has since added thorani Schintlmeister from Sumatra and Loda lunae Schintlmeister from the Philippines. The first is distinctive and probably belongs to a new group, though was compared with striata Rothschild (Australasian tropics) in the original description. Loda Kiriakoff was previously known only from Sulawesi. Schintlmeister & Lourens (2010) have conirmed the synonymy of luzonensis Kiriakoff with calapana Semper as suggested in Part 4.

Chadisra basivacua Walker (Part 4: p. 79). Sundaland. (Lowland forest).

Chadisra borneensis Holloway (Part 4: p 80). Endemic. (Lowland to upper montane forest).

Teleclita sundana Holloway (Part 4: p. 81). S. Burma, S. Thailand (S & P) Sundaland, Philippines. (Lowland). Note 337. Note 337. Teleclita sundana, as stated in Part 4, is sympatric with cathana Schaus in the Philippines (see also Schintlmeister, 1993). Holloway (1987) added Sulawesi to the distribution of cathana. However, S & P included Sulawesi, Halmahera and the Lesser Sunda Is. in the distribution. The whole strigata/sundana complex needs further study, as indicated by Schintlmeister & Lourens (2010).

Teleclita flavisticta Gaede (Part 4: p. 83, under Pseudoteleclita). S. Thailand, Sundaland. (Lowland). Note 338. Note 338. S & P included Pseudoteleclita as a synonym of Teleclita and recorded flavisticta from S. Thailand.

Harpyia microsticta Swinhoe complex (Part 4: p. 83). Afghanistan, Pakistan (S & P) through to Himalaya, Taiwan and Sundaland. (Lowland forest; upper montane forest). Note 339. Note 339. A. Schintlmeister (pers. comm.) has recognised three species of Harpyia in Sumatra and considers that microsticta is probably a species complex in need of further investigation.

Psegmaphora tripunctata Gaede (Part 4: p. 84). Vietnam, Laos, Thailand (S & P), Borneo, Sumatra. Lowland forest. Note 340. Note 340. The previous placement of Psegmaphora tripunctata in Ramesa Walker was retained in Part 4, but with an indication that it was unsatisfactory. Schintlmeister (1994b) treated it under its genus of original description, and (S & P) extended its range further north into mainland Asia.

Caschara punctifera Walker (Part 4: p. 85). Sundaland. Lowland forest.

Spatalia ( Allata) >argentifera Walker (Part 4: p. 85). S. Thailand, Vietnam, Cambodia (S & P), Sundaland, Palawan, Sulawesi. (Lowland to upper montane forest). Note 341. Note 341. Schintlmeister & Lourens (2010) treated Allata Walker and Celeia Walker as subgenera of Spatalia Hübner (type species argentina Denis & Schiffermüller, Europe).

Spatalia (Allata) benderi Dierl (Part 4: p. 87). Borneo, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia. Lowland forest. Note 342. Note 342. Spatalia racquelae Schintlmeister (1993: 144) replaces benderi in the main Philippines archipelago. Though S & P gave benderi a distribution extending through S.E. Asia to S.E. China, A. Schintlmeister (pers. comm., 2010) now considers it to be restricted to Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra and Borneo.

Spatalia (Allata) duplius Schintlmeister (S & P, 2007). S. China, Indochina to Thailand, Borneo (but not elsewhere in Sundaland), Palawan. (Lower montane). Note 343. Note 343. S. duplius Schintlmeister (S & P, 2007) is externally similar to benderi and widely distributed in mainland Asia. Specimens have been taken in Sabah (G. Trus Madi at 900m) and S. Kalimantan (S.E. of Loksado; 1100m). The male genitalia (compared to those of Bornean congeners) have a narrow, unspatulate uncus, relatively long and slender socii, relatively straight costal spines on the valves, that on the left much shorter than that on the right, with the saccular spines showing similar asymmetry: the aedeagus is long, sinuous, slightly tapering. S & P also noted S. sikkima Moore from Sundaland (excepting Borneo), the Philippines (including Palawan) and Sulawesi, so occurrence of sikkima in Borneo cannot be ruled out (A. Schintlmeister, pers. comm.).

Ginshachia bronacha Schaus (Part 4: p. 87). S. Thailand (S & P), Sundaland. Upper montane forest.

Ginshachia sumatrensis Gaede (Part 4: p. 88). Sundaland. Upper montane forest.

Rodneya caudata Kiriakoff (Part 4: p. 89). S. Vietnam, S. Thailand, S. Burma, Sundaland. Lowland forest. Note 344. Note 344. Schintlmeister (1993: 133) described a second species, Rodneya cernyi Schintlmeister, from Palawan and Luzon in the Philippines. He also (S & P, 2007) recorded cernyi in S. Laos and Thailand and extended the range of caudata generally into the southern part of the S.E. Asian peninsula.

Clostera fulgurita Walker(Part 4: p. 89). Oriental tropics to Sundaland and Sulawesi. (Upper montane forest). Note 345. Note 345. In Part 4 it was suggested that Clostera fulgurita Walker might be conspecific with the Palaearctic C. anachoreta [Denis & Schiffermüller] (attributed to Fabricius in error). It was placed as a subspecies thereof by Schintlmeister (1994b: 230); see also Schintlmeister (1991 [1992]: 183). However, Schintlmeister (S & P, 2007) indicated that breeding experiments have shown the two taxa to be distinct. He also recorded fulgurita from Sulawesi.

Clostera restitura Walker (Part 4: p. 90). Oriental tropics to Sundaland. (?Lower montane forest).

Clostera angularis Snellen (Part 4: p. 2). Sundaland, Philippines (Schintlmeister, 1993). (Lowland). Note 346. Note 346. C. angularis is recorded from Palawan and Luzon in the Philippines, with hildora Schaus as a synonym (Schintlmeister & Lourens, 2010).

Clostera dorsalis Walker (Part 4: p. 92). S. Thailand (S & P), Sundaland, Philippines (Schintlmeister, 1993). (Lowland to lower montane forest). Note 347. Note 347. S & P included Gaugamela atrifrons Walker (Borneo) in the synonymy of dorsalis, bringing Gaugamela Walker into synonymy with Clostera Samouelle. However, this synonymy was listed by Watson et al. (1980), and so had probably been established prior to 1980.

Clostera bramah Roepke (Part 4: p. 93). Sundaland, Palawan. Lowland forest. Note 348. Note 348. C. bramah roepkei Schintlmeister & Lourens (2010) is a newly described subspecies from Palawan.

Clostera bramoides Holloway (Part 4: p. 93). Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia (B). (Lowland). Note 349. Note 349. This species of Clostera is misspelt 'brahmaoides' in Schintlmeister (1994b).

Micromelalopha melinau Holloway (Part 4: p. 94). Borneo, ?Sumatra, Palawan (Schintlmeister & Lourens, 2010). (Lowland forest).

Micromelalopha baibarana Matsumura (Part 4: p. 94, as cornutuncus Holloway). Taiwan, S. China, N.E. Himalaya to Sundaland. (Lowland). Note 350. Note 350. Schintlmeister (1991 [1992]; 1994b: 230) placed Micromelalopha cornutuncus Holloway as a subspecies of baibarana and indicated that further populations with slightly different male genitalia occurred in Peninsular Malaysia and Sumatra (Bender, 1985: 96). Schintlmeister (1991 [1992]) also included Luzon in the distribution, but this probably was of one of the species he later described as new (Schintlmeister, 1993). The mainland Asian distribution was extended further by S & P.

Micromelalopha cornutijuxta Holloway (Part 4: p. 94). Endemic. (Lowland).

Gonoclostera aurosigna Hampson (Part 4: p. 96, under Plusiogramma). N.E. Himalaya to Sundaland. (Lowland, ?swamp forest). Note 351. Note 351. Schintlmeister (1991 [1992]) placed Plusiogramma Hampson as a synonym of Gonoclostera Butler. S & P recorded aurosigna from N.E. Himalaya, Burma and Thailand. A new species has been described from Palawan, G. augesco Schintlmeister & Lourens (2010).


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